Albies Affordable Art

AFFORDABLE, ORIGINAL PAINTINGS BY BIRMINGHAM ARTIST ALBERT TONKS

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A

 

Acrylic

A painting medium, created by dispersing pigment in an acrylic emulsion.  Dries quickly to a tough non toxic flexible film.

Alizarin

A synthetic dye used in the manufacture of pigments.

Alla Prima

A technique by which a painting is finished in one session, without either underpainting or drawing.

 

B

 

Binder

Any medium when mixed with a pigment to form a paint is commonly called a "binder".

Block in

An under painting technique, where the artist roughly lays out the composition and form of the painting.

Bloom

A white discolouration on the surface of varnish.

Bright

Similar to a flat brush, but with shorter bristles. Used to lay thick, heavy paint to a surface.

 

C

 

Cadmiums

Brilliant and permanent pigments made from cadmium sulphate.

Cobalt

Cobalt pigments are made from a metal resembling nickel.

Complementary Colours

The three primary colours, blue, red and yellow create a complementary colour by a mix of the other two.

The complimentary colour of red is green, which is a mix of yellow and blue. Blue's would be orange, and yellow's purple, which is a mix of the other two colours.

Crosshatching

The use of criss cross strokes to create depth and form.

 

D

 

Distemper

A water soluble paint using egg yolk or glue size as a binder. Used for wall decorations.  See Tempera

Dry Brush

A technique, mainly used in watercolour, whereby paint is applied with a dry or slightly damp brush.

 

E

 

Earth colours

Pigments made from minerals such as umber, ochre and sienna.

Etching

Using acid to incise a metal plate.

Extenders

Materials used to the bulk of pigment. Used in cheaper quality paint. Also known as fillers.

 

F

 

Fat

Possessing, as in paint, a high proportion of oil.

Ferrule

The metal hair or bristle holder on a paint brush.

Filbert

The most versatile oil brush. They have square ends that taper inwards. Filberts can be used for most brush strokes.

Filler

See Extender

Fixative

A thin varnish sprayed onto drawings or pastels for protection.

Flats

As the name implies, flats have square ends are useful for large areas and for blending.

Fugitive colours

A phrase used to describe a pigments tendency to fade or change colour.

 

G

 

Gesso

An absorbent ground used for priming painting surfaces. Usually white, but now available in black.

Glazing

A transparent layer of paint applied over another layer, to change the colour underneath.

Gouache

An opaque, water based paint, also known as poster paint.

Grain

The grain is the texture of the painting surface.

Graphite

A form of carbon. When compressed with clay it makes the common pencil.

Ground

In oil painting, the ground is usually an oil based mixture. Gesso is the most common. Is used to prevent the paint from being absorbed into the painting surface.

 

H

Half tones

The tones of colour between the lightest and darkest shades.

Hatching

A drawing technique, whereby sets of parallel lines are drawn over one another to create density and darkness.

 

I

Impasto

A painting technique in which the paint is applied very thick.

 

K

Kolinsky

Is the fur of the Siberian mink. Used in the making of the finest sable brushes.

 

L

Lapis lazuli

A blue stone from which natural ultramarine pigment is ground.  Very expensive.

Lean

The opposite of fat in relation to paint. possesses a low proportion of oil to pigment.

 

M

Medium

a)  Any substance mixed with pigment to form paint, for example oil to make oil paint and gum arabic to make watercolour.

b) Substances added to media whilst painting, such as linseed oil or turpentine.

 

N

Negative space

The space surrounding the main subject.

Nocturne

A painting done at night, usually a landscape.

 

O

Ochres

Natural earths used to make pigment.

Opacity

The power of a pigment to obscure the painted surface, so that it cannot be seen through.

 

P

Palette

A board or surface for mixing colours. May be made of wood, plastic, china, paper, or perspex.

Pigment

Any substance which when mixed with a liquid, creates a colour for painting. Made from natural substances or synthetic.

 

R

Resins

Substances obtained from coniferous trees. Used in media as varnishes.

Retouching Varnish

A temporary varnish for oil paintings, useful for when exhibiting as a temporary measure.

 

S

Sable

Animal whose hair is used to make fine soft brushes.

Scumbling

A painting technique in which dry thick paint is applied to a surface in a loose manner, so that previous layers show through the broken areas.

Size

A mixture of pigment and glue, applied to the painting surface for priming or painting.

Stretcher

A wooden frame on which canvas is stretched.

Support

The painting surface i.e. canvas, board or paper.

 

T

Tempera

Usually refers to egg tempera painting, which was popular circa 1400's. Quick drying and difficult to work with.

Tooth

Degree of roughness in texture of canvas or paper.

Torchon

A rolled paper stump used drawing.Can be used for toning and blending.

Toxicity

Amount of poison in a material. Toxic paints include Flake White.

Turpentine

This is the most common diluent in oil painting. If too much is used tends to create a dull effect. Rapid evaporation can cause deterioration of the paint surface.

 

U

Ultramarine

Blue pigment made from Lapis lazuli. Very expensive. French ultramarine is an artificial substitute.

Underdrawing

The technique of blocking in the drawing, composition and tonal values in a painting before the more complex painting takes place.

 

V

Value

The tone of a colour ranging from white to black.

Viscosity

 The stickiness of fluids.

 

W

Wash

The mixing of large amounts of paint and applying it loosely to the painting surface. Used mainly in watercolours.

Wet in Wet

A painting technique whereby wet paint is applied to an already wet surface, creating subtle blends of colour.

 

Y

Yellowing

A tendency for the media to tint towards yellow if media is added, mainly linseed oil.

 

Z

Zinc white

White made from zinc oxide. If used in oil painting it needs plenty of medium, and as a tendency to crack.