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ADHESIVES  The early days of woodworking always used animal based glues to stick wood surfaces together, but nowadays there are many different types of adhesive available and few can be classed as natural. Around the 1920s animal glues were still being used and were made by heating beads soaked in water known as scotch or pearl glue, and also casein glues and starch.
Some of the first new glues were the resin glues such as Formaldehyde and these are thermosetting requiring a hardener and in the case of UFs water resulting in a chemical reaction that can be speeded up by the application of heat.
The advent of mass produced furniture in the 50s and 60s saw the introduction of Polyvinyl Acetates (PVA) these are known as white glues and are thermoplastics.
In more recent years the synthetic hot melt adhesives have arrived on the scene.
For more info see under Resorcinol and Cyanoacrylates
Resorcinol  This is an extremely powerful resin adhesive mixed with a powder or liquid catalyst the joint needs to be under pressure and temperature and moisture content are important.
Cyanoacrylates  Known as super glues work very fast and produces a very hard joint.
More info on this link 
From Simon Hope Colchester Essex England

BALLS  For info on turning wooden balls see Spheres on Ref N to Z      
BEGINNERS  If you are a beginner Visit our new site  http://www.geocities.com/weymouth2000uk/index.html
See Pulleys on N to Z Ref page.
BAULK  Term used for a log squared up ready for conversion usually bigger than 4.5inches square.
BILLIARDS CUES  See Snooker or Cues
BILLIARD & POOL Tables (Building)
BLEACHING For information relating to Wood Bleaching Click

BODGER  "Bodger" an old word applied to a woodworker who turned wooden parts on a portable lathe powered by a treadle and a springy sapling. For more information go to http://www.bodgers.org.uk/
BOLECTION TURNING  This is the name given to the inlaying of a narrow wooden strip into a groove around a turned object. The word bolection means a fillet or moulding with part of its section set into a groove and part of it proud
BOTTLE STOPPERS Bottle stop ideas CLICK HERE   also Cord Pulls and Chain Pulls
CABRIOLE  LEGS How to make follow this link  http://www.wood-worker.com/plans/nov-dec97.htm
CERTIFICATION   Check what this means at  EcoTimber
CHAIN PULLS see Bottle Stops
CHAIN SAWS See page  Chain Saws
CHECKS  This is the term used when uneven shrinking creates stresses that overcome the inherent strength of the wood.
CLEAVING This is the process of splitting wood in a controlled way along the grain whilst it is still wet or green with a wedge or cleft most European hard woods split easily this way although Elm can be troublesome depending on the grain.

  Many woodturners enjoy making clocks so we have included a page with some useful links to clock part suppliers Click Here
COLLET CHUCK  A collet chuck works by gripping the workpiece around the entire circumference of a cylindrical piece wood. Usually there 4 also slots to enable the corners of square sectional pieces of wood to be held. The main advantages of a collet chuck are that a much more even grip can be applied, and there is less marking or damage to the wood such as with conventional jaws.
CORD PULLS See Bottle Stops

CUBIC MEASUREMENT Timber is usually measured as per cube metre, the equivalent cost per cube metre is the price of a solid block of timber 1m long, 1m wide, and 1m thick, or any other shape that will give the same volume. Therefore a piece of timber 3mtrs x 0.15mtrs x .02mtrs = .009cubic mtrs. If the price is 14 per cube the cost is 14 x 0.009 = 12.6pence. The cost per metre would be 12.6/length i.e.12.6/3 = 4.2p. If the price per cubic metre is given the cost per metre length can be calculated by multiplying the width in metres by the thickness in metres by the price i.e. 0.15 x 0.02 x 1400 = 4.2pence.
If the timber is in a log there is a quick check that is often used as follows First measure the girth near the centre, this girth is approx. equal to the combined sides of a square log. Therefore if the girth is 2mtrs each side of the square would be 0.5 mtr. If the log is 4mtrs long then the cubic measurement is 4 x 0.5 x 0.5 = 1cubic mtr
Cues Snooker & Pool  Click Here or for more in depth if you have acrobat reader try HERE
EAR PLUGS  Ear Plugs Aearo Limited Tel 01625 878320
ECCENTRIC TURNING      Published Article
ECOFORESTRY Check what this means at EcoTimber
See Eccentric turning above 
FLASH POINT This is a very important subject for wood turners as many inflammable substances are used and can become very dangerous. Flash point is the lowest temperature at which vapour or fumes of a substance when mixed with air will be ignited. Therefore the higher the flash point the lower the risk and vice versa.
FLITCH  Used to describe softwood pieces above 12 x4 inches. Or hardwood 8 x4 inches.
FORMULAE See formula page Click Here


GALLERIES  List of Galleries
The goblet is another very popular turned item follow this link for some ideas CLICK
GREEN WOOD  This is wood in its wet state and turners often rough turn wet timber to speed up and control the drying process. A rough  wet bowl turned to about 1 inch thickness will take about 3 to 4 months to dry. Treat with a Past Wax or sealer before storing in a dry location and check the weight on a regular basis. When the loss of weight stops then equilibrium is reached and the item can be finished. A good tip is mount to a face plate with two of the screws  along the grain, the chances are that you will be able to use the same holes when you carry out the finishing.
HALF TIMBER  A baulk cut in half along the center minimum approx (4.5 x 2.25 inches).
LAC BEETLE  see Shellac
If you are interested in this subject Be sure and check out a brief article by Robert Spragg Sr. on this link  http://www.woodturningontheweb.com for both wood and bone bobbins and some very nice pictures of each.
LATHE HISTORICAL For information on historic and ancient lathes click here
For lathe speed eqmt go to www.speedcontrols.co.uk  To calculate go to Pulleys
LIGHT PULLS The following link to Fred Holders site will give info on this very popular turned item. Martin Pidgen
MARQUETRY   Marquetry  It is coverage of the entire surface of a board or piece of furniture with veneer, in the form of a skillfully applied design or picture. This is different from Inlay, which is the insertion of thin pieces of veneer, ivory, copper, etc., into a solid base or Intarsia which uses solid pieces in a montage. Find out more from the Marquetry Society at   http://www.marquetry.org/    The following book provides an excellent introduction to the techniques of Marquetry & Parquetry. Marquetry Techniques by Alan Townsend & David Middleton. 
MINIATURES Turning miniatures for some really nice examples check out  the Gallery B Woodturning site by Debra Welling 
MOISTURE CONTENT The normal method of measuring moisture content MC is by sampling the weight when in a wet state and comparing the weight when dry. To measure the oven dry weight take a sample piece and weigh, then bake at approx. 100 deg C. Weigh at regular intervals until there is no change in weight between samples. MC = (Initial Weight - Oven Dry Weight/Oven Dry Weight) x 100 %.
MULTI CENTRE TURNING   See Eccentric Turning above


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