Page title graphic:Grimspound

Grimspound: A study of this ancient bronze age settlement on Dartmoor, South-West England.

By Andrew Westcott

Dartmoor is a region of high moorland overlying a large area of granite which is situated in the county of Devon, South West England and covers an area of 368 square miles. It was declared a national park in 1951 and is now overseen by the Dartmoor National Park Authority.

I have long considered Dartmoor to be a fascinating place, mainly because of its obvious natural beauty and remoteness but also because of its long history of usage by man. Evidence of early human occupation can be found all over the moor and it has been estimated that there are around 5,000 hut circles scattered over the area. Also to be found are the remains of entire villages or settlements although many consider the most significant and well known of these early communities to be the Bronze Age settlement of Grimspound.

Grimspound as seen from the opposite hill
The entire site at Grimspound as seen from Hookney Tor, on the adjacent hill.

An overall view of Grimspound can be seen from the adjacent Hookney Tor and a photograph taken from this location is shown in the photo above, a high resolution image being available by clicking on it. (You will have to disable Internet Explorer's annoying image resizing 'feature' to see it at full size, however.) It is advisable to choose a relatively clear day for this climb as moorland mist and fog frequently obliterates the view of the site at this altitude. The site itself consists essentially of a walled enclosure of a little over four acres in area containing the remains of many dwellings which take the form of circles of granite boulders known as hut circles or round houses. The entire site measures at the widest points 145 yards by 170 yards and nestles between the high points of Hookney Tor and Hameldown Tor at a height of about 1,500 feet above sea level. From the defensive point of view it is less than ideally placed as it is overlooked from both of the neighbouring hills and any invading force would have a significant advantage. I think it is therefore reasonable to assume that it was not built as a fortification of any type but far more likely to have been the home of a farming community.

Grimspound is generally regarded as having been built in the middle bronze age, about 3,000 years ago and a few artifacts, notably pottery, have been recovered dating from this period which substantiate this. However, the site may well have been in use in much earlier times and the inhabitants normally credited with its construction may simply have moved in to an existing site. Certainly on various occasions since, some of the huts have been used as temporary shelter by shepherds and especially the early tin streamers who began to work on Dartmoor as much as a thousand years ago extracting cassiterite, the principal ore of tin, from the deposits they found near the surface and there are indeed remains of early tin mining activity still to be seen in the valley below Grimspound.

A road map of the area around Grimspound.
Diagram 1.
A basic road map of the vicinity, illustrating the location
of the site of Grimspound.

A glance at the map in diagram 1 will give you some idea of where to find Grimspound once you are in the vicinity, as there are no directions to it posted on the roads. The site is under the care of English Heritage and as it is on open moorland, it is free of charge to access. Directions are fairly simple: Follow the B3212 for about 4 miles from Postbridge in the direction of Moretonhampstead until you find Challacombe Cross, a small junction to the right sign posted to Widecombe In The Moor. After turning right here, travel just over a mile down this narrow road until you see a tarmac pull-in on the right, room for perhaps 5 cars. Grimspound is a few hundred yards up on the left, the path being very clear and easy to follow as it is well worn and the more susceptible parts have been paved with granite slabs to protect these areas from erosion caused by the small but steady stream of visitors and moorland hikers. Although easy enough for able bodied people to negotiate, due to the uneven and steep terrain it is not suitable for wheelchairs or the severely disabled.

A diagram of the entire Grimspound site.
Diagram 2.

This is a diagram I've compiled of the site of Grimspound,
showing the location of the features within the enclosure.

Over the years several official archaeological surveys of the site have taken place with varying degrees of accuracy, the earliest I know of being the excellent and surprisingly accurate 1829 survey by A.C Shillibear, a copy of which is now in the care of the Sites And Monuments Register in Exeter. This particular map is important as it shows the site as it was before it was disrupted during a major excavation which was initiated by the Dartmoor Exploration Committee in 1894. The purpose of this dig was to try to discover once and for all exactly what Grimspound was by initiating an in-depth study of its archaeology, as there was much disagreement as to its purpose and origin at that time, some believing it to be a fortress or early town, some assuming it was no more than an area to hold cattle although a small superstitious minority still considered the site to have been the work of the devil. It is from this supposition that the original name of Grimspound was derived, being first suggested and published as such by the Reverend Richard Polwhele in 1797, this name having since been widely accepted.

The map shown in diagram 2 is my own record of the site and its contents after close examination. Although the graphics are my own work, this map was based very heavily on the Shillibear map so I can take no credit for the initial layout. It is reproduced here as an aid for any visitors who wish to identify the various structures within the enclosure, and the numbers I have used for the huts follow the convention set during the 1894 to 1896 excavation to avoid ambiguity. A printer friendly black and white version of the map is available by clicking on the map should you wish to visit the site with some sort of reference guide.

The dotted line running horizontally through the map represents the old Manaton to Headland Warren path, the actual construction date of which I am unsure although it must have been before the turn of the 19th century. The builders saw fit to build straight through the site rather than around it, creating as they did so two new breaks in the perimeter wall and damaging evidence of parts of the enclosures to be found at the western side. A stream named Grimslake passes through the lower northern end of the settlement, although it does pass underground for some of the distance. This stream could possibly have provided a useful local source of water for the inhabitants and their animals avoiding the need to visit the lower valley for this purpose, assuming the stream was there in those days. We must remember that Dartmoor was once a heavily wooded area with a somewhat milder climate than we experience now, but it is mainly the deep layers of accumulated peat, a feature of moorland rather than a woodland environment, soaking up the rainfall like a sponge and releasing it gradually which is responsible for the stream seen today, so it is entirely possible that no stream at all existed here at the time of Grimspound's earliest presumed occupation.

The remains of the perimeter wall at Grimspound.
Photo 3.

A section of the wall surrounding Grimspound.
There may originally have been a wooden
palisade at the top for added security.

Upon approaching Grimspound the first structure you will notice are the remains of the perimeter wall as shown in photo 3, consisting of vast numbers of randomly sized granite stones lying scattered along the line of the wall which in some places amounts to more than 15 feet in thickness. Some of these stones are extremely bulky and one particularly prominent one is located in the lower northern part of the wall and measures a massive 10 feet long by 5 feet high and is large enough to be easily picked out from the opposite side of the enclosure. In some places it is still possible to detect some order in the placement of the stones used to construct the wall, although there is no way of knowing whether this is the original wall structure we are looking at or whether it is the result of work done during the aforementioned 1894 to 1896 excavation when parts of the wall were known to have been rebuilt. In some areas it looks as though the wall may have consisted in fact of two separate walls about 3 feet thick with a gap between of a similar thickness, although the subsequent collapse, a bit of a mystery itself for such a massive structure, has made this difficult to determine.

I am aware that the site has been visited by various people expert in the art of dowsing, and claims have been made that there are two dowsed lines running down the path of the wall suggesting the cavity wall theory could be correct. Unfortunately, although having practiced dowsing to some degree, my experience in this field didn't allow me to positively verify the findings myself and readings taken across the wall were spurious and inconclusive. If the wall was constructed as two separate structures as has been suggested, I would imagine the cavity would have been filled with peat, soil, rubble, branches and so on which would have made a more solid and resistant structure. The wall would have been intended to keep out wolves and bears at night which lived in this country then, and would probably also have needed some sort of wooden palisade fence on the top to stop them climbing over to completely ensure their exclusion.

This photo shows the original gateway to Grimspound looking out.
Photo 4.

The original single gateway to Grimspound,
looking out from inside showing the paving and
the remains of the steps.
This photo shows the original gateway to Grimspound looking in.
Photo 5.

The original gateway to Grimspound, looking in
from outside. Here the paving slabs are clearly
visible. This entrance would have been closed at
night to contain and protect the livestock.

To the South East of the enclosure at the top end is an imposing gateway which was most likely the single original entrance to the pound, built using several very large stones and amounting to about six feet in width, although I was interested to note during my research that in some of the early descriptions of this site, this most obvious and visible gateway has been given little or no mention leading to suspicions that it might not be original after all. If it was the original entrance, most likely the villagers would have taken their livestock up onto the hills during the day to graze, passing through this entrance and would have returned them to the enclosure at night to avoid losing any to marauding wolves. The floor of the gateway is paved with large flat granite slabs which are visible in photo 4, to avoid erosion by the hundreds of hooves which would have passed in and out during the course of each day, and there is evidence of three large steps being placed just inside to help reduce the severity of the drop in ground level upon entering the pound, evidence of the steps still visible in photo 5. Once all the animals and villagers were safely inside, a massive wooden gate would probably have been drawn up and lashed into place across the gateway to secure the community against the threat of the wild animals.

This is a photo of the cross I found inscribed on one of the gateway boulders at Grimspound.
Photo 6.

This is a photo of a cross I found inscribed on
one of the gateway boulders at Grimspound.
Lichens have grown over and into the carving
in the same manner and to the same extent
as on the rest of the stone.

One interesting feature I noticed while examining the entrance stones was the presence of a small cross about 6 inches in height carved into the granite to a depth of about half an inch. It is located on the middle stone of the entrance wall on the left hand side as you face outwards, as in photo 5, and the cross itself is shown in photo 6. Although I doubt very much that the cross dates from the time of occupation, it is certainly quite old as lichens have grown over and into the carving in the same manner and to the same extent as on the rest of the stone, and lichens, especially in this environment are very slow growing indeed. The carving itself also seems to have suffered from the effects of weathering to some degree. I have closely examined other stones around the site but as yet haven't found any other carvings or inscriptions.

Within Grimspound itself can be seen the remains of the many dwellings and storage huts, manifesting themselves as roughly circular structures between nine and fifteen feet in diameter consisting of large granite boulders lying embedded in the ground. Eighteen of these hut circles were altered during the 1894 - 1896 excavations, as they were dug up and in some cases 'restored', something modern day archaeologists would consider unthinkable, and of the eighteen huts that were excavated, it is understood that thirteen were found to show evidence of having been lived in, the remainder apparently of simpler construction and so maybe only used as storehouses. No doubt some valuable evidence was destroyed during the dig, notably the remains of post holes assuming any had existed, as the archaeological techniques of revealing such evidence was not understood at that time.

The construction of the inhabited huts mostly seems to follow the same basic style and pattern, with an entrance passage leading to a paved doorway constructed using two uprights supporting a lintel, inside there being evidence of a raised section which could have been used as a raised bed area to minimise the effects of damp, where bedding material made from old skins, dried grass and so on may have been used to enhance comfort and help keep the occupant warm. A hearth stone is also present in some, but by no means all of the huts lending weight to the idea that some were used for storage only, and the remains of fires have been identified although without the benefit of carbon dating we don't know if these burnt remains are the results of more recent occupation. The walls of the huts would have stood perhaps 3 feet high and it has been reported that in some cases they seem to have consisted of a double row of stones, so it is possible that vegetable matter or soil would have been pushed between the stones for windproofing and insulation.

How the roof was constructed is completely unknown as there is absolutely no trace now of any wooden remains anywhere on the site. We can, however make some sensible guesses as to the form a roof could have taken based on results of surveys on similarly aged sites. Most likely in my opinion it would have been constructed from a framework of timbers set to a central pole with simple thatch tied over the top to waterproof it and probably a small ventilation hole being left in the roof to allow smoke to escape. Quite how the roof was persuaded to stay on is also a subject for guesswork as during one of my visits there was a gusty 25mph wind blowing from the west, so some serious lashing down must have been in order.

Grimspound Hut Circle 3, one of the ones restored in the late 1800s.
Photo 7.

Hut 3 at Grimspound. This dwelling was rebuilt
complete with roof during the excavation.
Metal railings erected to protect the work from
livestock have since been removed or stolen.

I have included photos of some of the hut circles to illustrate the differences in their condition. Photo 7 shows hut 3, which is of particular interest as it is one of the ones 'restored' during the 1890's excavation. This one had had its walls rebuilt and a complete roof added, the whole lot originally being surrounded by iron railings to keep moorland livestock at bay - I have seen a postcard of this somewhere on the 'web. It would be interesting to learn how they dealt with the wind problem, as little remains of their work now and the stone circle has started to fall into disrepair although it is still the best display of how these huts may have once looked.

Grimspound hut circle 16.
Photo 8.

Hut 16 at Grimspound, situated in a clear
well grazed area.

Photo 8 shows the remains of hut 16 in a well grazed area and may be one of the few hut circles which were left relatively untouched by the archaeologists of the 1800s.

A total of 24 circular stone structures have been officially identified within Grimspound although I personally believe there to be at least two more, and there are many loose rocks apparently strewn at random about the site suggesting other as yet unidentified structures. Several more hut circles can be found on the south side of the hill leading up to Hookney Tor, and presumably these were connected in some way with the main village.

There are some unexplained but interesting structures present at the right-hand (Western) side of the enclosure as you view my map, indicated by the two parallel lines of stones just below (North) of where the Headland Warren path breaks the wall, and I've been able to dowse several linear structures coming in perpendicularly for perhaps 15 feet from the outer wall at intervals of about 10 to 15 feet to the North of this point. I have no idea what they were, but possibly could have been animal pens or areas set aside for growing crops.

Grimspound must once have been a very busy community, with the farmers rearing their cattle and trading them to the neighbouring communities in exchange for goods they didn't produce themselves, such as flint or bronze tools, and grain. Whilst walking around Grimspound it is easy to see just the boulders lying in the heather but I imagine there were originally also extensive timber buildings here, taking the form of fenced paddocks to separate livestock, store rooms annexed to some of the huts, workshops and maybe several wooden dwellings in addition to the stone ones. A large portion of the enclosure seems to be devoid of any remains, and it is possible that this area had once contained wooden structures, long since rotted away, where perhaps the less affluent members of the community lived, with the more permanent stone huts being reserved for skilled craftsmen or leaders, but until such time as a full scale archaeological dig can take place making full use of modern techniques, we can only guess at how this village might have looked all those centuries ago.


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