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  Surveying -

Cave surveying is usually carried out with tape, compass and clinometer. This equipment is simple, portable and can be used in difficult situations that would prohibit the use of more accurate instruments e.g. theodolite and EDM based equipment. Sometimes cave surveyors make use of handheld laser distance measuring devices and targets for improved accuracy. Handheld GPS receivers are used to fix entrance locations so surface measurements are seldom taken.

The final output is a large scale plan and elevation showing symbols and notation for various types of formation, sediment, slopes, pitches, climbs, streamways etc. 3D cave-viewing software is available for enhanced visualisation. Measurements taken provide an essential record for future exploration and are of sufficient accuracy to predict connections with other caves and surface features.
 

Photography -

Cave photography is an acquired skill. The cave environment may be damp, dusty or muddy. This can not only damage equipment, but may interfere with the image quality. (Atmospheric dust and vapour often ruin flash photographs). Controlling exposure and planning lighting requires good communication and coordination.

We will be taking video, open shutter with bulbs, flash, slide and digital photography. The cave images we capture, will be enhanced by shots of the beautiful rural landscape, flora, fauna and people. These are essential for supporting publications, articles and seminars that follow up the trip and generate interest in the world of caving.

   

Exploration -

Many caves are known about and have been explored by the local population for hundreds of years. It is sometimes surprising just how far locals have ventured into cave systems with limited lighting, or have managed to descend cliff-faced surface depressions. Despite this, it is still possible to find untouched passages even in well trodden caves.
Fortunately too, there are just as many caves that are inaccessible without the use of rope access techniques. Enormous shafts, that may be 100-450m deep can give access to colossal stream or fossil systems for the first time.

    Biology -
    Chemistry -
    Archaeology -