GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS(C)

Cabin, an enclosed place underground used for a particular purpose such as an underground office, e.g. Lamp cabin, Deputy's cabin, or another name for the Lamp Room on the surface.

Cable belt conveyor, a heavy-duty, high capacity, conveyor belt that uses two stranded steel ropes, one on either side of the belt to provide tensile pull. Moulded rubber shoes along the edge of the belt grip the steel ropes, which support the belt and provide the motive power. Cable belt conveyers can carry coal up steeply inclined roadways for long distances.

Cage, the lift in a mine shaft for raising and lowering men and materials. First introduced by John Curr of Sheffield in about 1787. Also called a ‘Chair’. (N.East).

Cage dip, a roadway driven to the rise in ‘rearers’ workings used as the intake airway. (N.Staffs.).

Cage guides, -see Guides.

Cage props, -see Keps.

Cager, a power operated ram. Usually hydraulically powered, but in the earlier days steam powered. Also used for pushing mine cars on and off the cage at the pit bottom or the pit top.

Caking index or Agglutinating power, a method used in the laboratory for determining the degree of caking, coking power or binding together of coal when a pulverised sample is heated in a prescribed manner.

Caldron botton, the fossil root of a tree or fern lying on the roof of a seam of coal. It could drop without giving any warning, occasioning accidents. It derives its name from the resemblance to the bottom of a caldron or pot; in Somersetshire, it is called a ‘bell-mould’.

Callice, Callis or Clod and callice, dirt and waste., or a shaley coal. (Lancs.)

Calley-stone, a type of gannister. (Yorks.).

Calling course, the time at which the ‘caller’ made his rounds from house to house to wake the early shift men. He would then make a later call to wake the boys and day workers. In early days he would knock on the door and call ‘Wake up and go to work, in the name of God!’. (19th century N East). The ‘knocker-up’ was still employed in the Lancashire mill towns as late as the mid. 1940s.

Canaries. During a mine rescue operation, the rescue team would enter the mine wearing breathing apparatus. As the amount of air carried was limited, the breathing apparatus would not be brought into use until absolutely necessary. To avoid delay by having to stop to test for gas with a safety lamp, the team would carry two or three canaries in separate cages. At the first sign of carbon monoxide (after damp), the bird would become distressed and in some cases fall from its perch. A small cylinder of oxygen was often carried to resuscitate the bird. There are now more sophisticated electronic means of testing for gas.

Canch, Caunch or Kench, the face of a ripping or brushing; or the part of the roof of an underground roadway (top canch) that has to be taken down; or the portion of the floor (bottom canch) that is required to be removed to increase roadway height; or the step of rock up onto the face when dinting or pavement brushing. - see also Brush, Rip, Dinting and Lip.

Canch holes, holes drilled and fired around the ‘sumpers’ in shaft sinking or road heading. Also called ‘side holes’.

Candle coal or Cannel coal, an unlaminated coal that breaks with a glassy, conchoidal fracture, rather like that of pitch. Composed of much-altered plant material including spores, resin, cuticles and oil algae. Probably water transported and deposited as organic sediments. It burns with a bright, smoky flame like a candle.

Cank or Kank, a compact, fine-grained sandstone, or any fine-grained rock that was hard to drill. (Yorks.), e.g. an irony mudstone or siltstone. The cank in the Mansfield Marine Band is an ankeritic siltstone.

Canker, the ochreous sediment in pit water. - see Ochre.

Cannel, -see Candle Coal.

Canopy, the roof member of a chock-type powered support.

Cap, a small piece of wood placed between either the top of a prop and the roof support bar or at the base of a prop. Also called ‘cappers’- also see Biscuit; or a horizontal girder or timber set between two props to support a roadway; or a detonator or ‘blasting cap’. - see also Detonators; or the blue cap on the flame of a candle or oil lamp when burned in a mixture of firedamp and air, also called a ‘top’. - see also Blue cap; or a strong slab or block of concrete placed over a shaft, usually on abandonment; or the attachment of the rope to the cage, also called a ‘rope capel’; or to put a shackle on a rope, (N.East.).

Cap head, a top placed upon an air-box, used in shaft sinking, &c., for the purpose of catching as much air as possible; its front is kept facing the wind by means of a vane.

Cap lamp, a rechargeable battery operated light worn on a miner's safety helmet.

Cappers, -see ‘Cap’.

Capping or Rope capping, the fixing of a winding rope to the top of the cage. Originally often achieved by bending back the end of the rope to form a loop and then clamping the pieces together. This proved a source of weakness and ropes are now capped using a steel socket containing the separated strands of the end of the rope where molten white metal is poured into this socket, forming, on cooling, a solid white metal cap.

Car, a mine wagon. The name is now used for large mine tubs i.e. mine car. - see also Shuttle car; also another term for ‘canker’. (N.Staffs.).

Cardox, a blasting method used in gassy mines that employs gas at high pressure. The gas is carbon dioxide and steel shells or cartridges (essentially steel tubes with firing and discharge heads) are filled with liquid carbon dioxide, inserted into pr-drilled holes in the coal or rock and then actuated by a powder fuse primer. The gas then escapes through ports at the end of the shell disrupting the coal or rock by a heaving force acting through any existing planes of weakness. This method was designed to produce lumps rather than coal fines.

Carts, a term for small tubs. (S.Wales).

Carred-water or Carrod-water, water coloured with yellow ochre (hydrated oxide of iron) held in suspension. (N.Staffs.).

Carrying bars, log bars used to span wide underground openings. –see Bars.

Cartridge, a charge of blasting powder contained in a case.

Carvings, the air roads formed by the angle of the steps in longwall working where the face is stepped.

Cash, waste obtained from holing (Scot.); or a soft band, sometimes found separating one stratum from another; when thin, called a ‘cashy parting’, (N.East).

Casting, moving coal along the face by throwing it using shovels in the absence of a conveyor or tubs. This produced much small coal by breakage; also to shovel or "cast" the coals from the keels into the vessels, at the ports, (N.East.).

Catband, an iron loop placed on the underside of the centre of a flat corf bow, in which to insert the hook, (N.East.).

Catcher, a safety or disengaging hook that comes into action during ‘over-winding’ or another name for the ‘Keps’. (Lancs.); or a qualified face worker without a regular position in a face team, who covers for absentees. (S.Staffs.).

Catches, the cage support at the shaft top, also called ‘keps’ or ‘keeps’; or the movable checks by which the tubs are secured in the cages.

Catch prop, a prop set temporarily under broken roof bars for safety during roadway repair work; or props set down the middle of a roadway for extra support, also called ‘middle sets’.

Cat coal, coal containing pyrites. (Yorks.).

Cathead, an ironstone ball, (N.East). Roughly spheroidal ironstone nodules larger than ‘dog balls’.

Catshead, -see ‘Boilum’.

Cautionary zone, a zone in which unworked coal lies at or less than a specified distance from unconsolidated deposits or other sources of danger.

Cave or Caving, to allow the roof to fall by removing the supports or waste packs.

Caved-in, ground where the roof has fallen or where the sides of the roadway have collapsed.

Cavils or Cavills, a type of lottery system or draw by which is decided the working place of each individual. (N.East).- see Kyevilin day. Caving, method of mining which allows the waste area behind the face to collapse on the removal of supports.

Cellar coal, any seam lying a short distance below a main seam in which sumps or cellars are made. (Lancs.).

Chain conveyor or Scraper chain conveyor. - see Armoured flexible conveyor.

Chainless haulage, a rack and pinion mechanism between the armoured face conveyor and the shearer.

Chair, another word foe ‘shaft’.

Chaldron, the Newcastle chaldron was a measure containing 53 cwts. of coal.

Chalker-on, -see Craneman.

Chalking deal, a flat board upon which the craneman or flat-lad apportions and keeps account of the work done by the putters in the district of which he has charge, (N.East).

Chance or Chance Band, an irregular, often nodular, band of ironstone. (N.Staffs.).

Chandler. In the early days of mining the chandler was employed at the colliery to manufacture candles.

Chap, -see Sounding and Jowl.

Chargeman or Chargehand, a working foreman or team leader who is not a mine official.

Chase or Chess (the ropes). After the winding-engine has been standing for some time, to run the cages up and down the shaft to see that all is right before men are allowed to ride the cage.

Check, - see Motty, Pin, Tally and Token.

Checker packs, square packs placed in a chess board pattern. Adopted where the available stowing material was not sufficient for complete packing of the waste.

Checkweighman, employed by the miners to verify the weights of the tubs.

Check viewer, a viewer employed by the lessor to see that the provisions of the coal lease are duly observed.

Cherry coal, a freely burning non-caking coal giving a bright flame. (Scot.).

Chinley or Shingly coals, coals that are neither round (or large) nor small, but are such that they will pass over the screens and are some of the best coals, (N.East).

Chittery coal, bright coal, free from fusain or muddy partings, with a conchoidal fracture and brittle nature. (Yorks.) i.e tending to chip.

Chock, a roof support made of interlaced horizontal, usually square, sections of timber (usually hardwood) about 2 feet long and 6 inches square. The centre of the chock would sometimes be filled with rubble, special devices called chock releases chould be incorporated in the chocks so that they could be easily released when under the pressure of the roof at the time they had to be withdrawn, also called ‘cogs’ or ‘stacks’; or the name for a modern hydraulic powered roof support, or hydraulic chock; or blocks of hardwood used to prevent the escape of tubs or wagons down an incline.

Chock blocks, square section, rectangular wooden blocks used to assemble a chock.

Chokedamp or blackdamp, an accumulation of carbon dioxide.

Chogs, blocks of wood used as packing behind the pipes in a pumping shaft. (Yorks.).

Chummings (chum’uns), empty tubs. (N.East).

Cinder coal. Coal near a ‘trap’ or a ‘whin dyke’, which has been altered by the heat of the hot rock.

Claggy, a seam of coal is said to have a ‘claggy’ top when it adheres to the roof and is with difficulty separated, (N.East).

Clam, a clip used for retaining pipes or electrical cables etc.; or a haulage clip, an appliance for attaching mine-cars or tubs to a haulage rope.

Clarty, muddy. (N.East).

Clatch harness or Clatch iron, the cross bar of iron attached to the fall of the rope with chains and hook at each end to suspend the corve by. (Yorks.).

Clayband, an argillaceous ironstone, usually found in bands a few inches in thickness, or in nodules.

Clay-dyke, a vertical fissure sometimes met with in coal seams, which has been filled in with clay.

Clay-seam, inferior coal between the Hards and Top Softs of the Barnsley Seam. (Yorks.).

Clay-seam dirt, a clay parting between the Clay Seam and the Top Softs of the Barnsley Seam. (Yorks.).

Clead, to cover with planks or deals, (N.East).

Cleading, the rope grooves in a winding drum.

Clean coal, a coal seam free from dirt partings; or coal from which impurities have been separated.

Clean locker, the locker in the pit head baths where a miner stores his everyday clean clothes between shifts. - see also Dirty locker.

Cleaning up, filling coal or stone from where it has fallen, cleaning up spillages.

Cleat, small-scale distinctive joint set (‘the cleat’) confined within the coal seam, arranged subnormal to bed boundaries. There are usually two orthogonal sets at about 85 degrees. One is usually prominent and is called the ‘main cleat’(also called the ‘Face cleat’,‘Bord cleat’ or sometimes the ‘Slynes’), the other being the subsidiary cleat (called the ‘Back’, ‘Butt’ or ‘End’ cleat. Individual cleats are commonly restricted by coal beds of different coal types and only sometimes extend through more than a few 10s mm. Cleat frequencies are typically >30/m in most bright coals and measurable displacement is essentially absent although slickensides are seen, particularly on any mineralised coatings and probably relate to later movement. Also called ‘backs’ (Derbys.). –see also Slip.

Cleat spar, swhitish, crystalline mineral usually mixed carbonates of iron, lime and magnesium (ankerite) in the cleat of coal.

Clevis or Clivey,s a spring-loaded hook attached to the winding rope; or a shackle for the easy coupling and uncoupling on chain haulage, winding etc.

Cliffe’s Hook,s a safety device comprising a spring attached to the end of the gin rope to stop the loose bar from disengaging.

Clift, another word for ‘shale’. (S.Wales).

Clift-cwar, another word for ‘siltstone’. (S.Wales).

Clippers or Clippus,s the hook used in shaft sinking to attach the rope to the corf, a corruption of Cliffe's hook.

Clivvy hook, the hook which attaches the rope to the kibble or hoppit in shaft sinking and is provided with a special locking tongue,designed to suit the particular form of kibble in use.

Clod or Clot, a soft shale lying directly above the coal seam. It invariably falls as the coal is taken from beneath it and has to be separated from the coal and discarded. Often traversed by numerous oblique, discontinuous, slippery surfaces (slickensides or listric surfaces). Also known as clot. (Som.). In the Bristol area it was called ‘come-down’ or ‘comb-dung’; or a thick fireclay above or below a seam of coal. (Lancs.), (Scot.); also known as bannocking dirt (Yorks.). Clod was also a term used for any lenticular or irregular friable dirt below, and particularly above a coal seam.

Clour, a small depression of roof into the coal, mostly in a post roof, (N.East).

Closer, a short link rail. Clump, -see ‘Clunch’. (Lancs.).

Clunch, an unlaminated mudstone with rootlets, the fireclay floor or seatearth underclay of some coal seams, also known as ‘spavin’ - see Stone clunch.

Coal balls, nodular calcareous rounded inclusions in coal seams, often containing well preserved plant fragments.

Coal cleaning, a process that separates coal from other foreign material such as shale or sandstone etc. usually utilising the difference in their specific gravities. The unwanted material is generally heavier than the coal.

Coal cutter, -see Cutter.

Coal face, the place where the coal is hewed or won.

Coal face working or weighting, movement of the coal due to strata pressure. –see Weight and Weighting.

Coal flour, very fine coal dust.

Coal gate, the main gate or roadway leading away from a coalface along which the coal travels, either in tubs on a haulage road or by conveyor belt. Sometimes called the ‘mothergate’. (Mids.). - see also Main gate.

Coal head, the working place in a coal heading.

Coal jig or Wash box, a plunger type of jig used to wash or separate coal from shale and other impurities, working on the principle of density difference. Principally consisting of a perforated plate upon which the run of mine coal rests and alternative upwards and downwards currents of water are passed through by the action of plungers causing the lighter coal to stratify in the upper layers of the bed and the heavier refuse to settle to the lower layers for removal.

Coal plough, -see Plough.

Coal pipe, the carbonized bark of a fossil plant; also a very thin seam or scare of coal, (N.East).

Coal preparation plant, the place on the surface of the mine that cleans the coal and prepares it for sale.

Cobbles, the market name for coal of the size of a double-fist, about 3 to 6 inches in dimensions.

Cobs or Cobbles, large lumps of coal. Cobs were larger than cobbles. (Lancs).

Cockelshell, black shale full of mussels (Particularly in the Adwalton Stone Coal, (Yorks.).

Cocker, roadway timber support consisting of two uprights and two bars forming the cross-member in the roof in the shape of a shallow inverted ‘V’. (N.Staffs.); or inclined prop set against overhanging coal tops for safety reasons. (S.Staffs.).

Cockermegs or Cockersprags, a set of three sprags to hold the coal on the face during holing. One 6ft sprag is placed horizontally in the middle of the seam and the other two 3ft sprags are set at an angle up to the roof and down to the floor from this middle sprag. (N.Staffs.).

Cockering, herring-bone supports. A method of support by which a centre support, of beams or bars of timber running longitudinally along the roof of the roadway is supported systematically by inclined struts or props with their base spragged in the side of the road. The whole structure having a herring-bone like appearance. (N.Staffs.).

Cockle Bed, fossil band comprising non-marine lamellibranches or ‘mussels’.

Cockwood, an 8 – 10 inch offcut piece of wood taken home and used for firelighting. (S.Staffs.).

Cod, a bearing of cast iron, bolted to the underside of a tram, (N.East).

Coffering, -see Tubbing.

Cog, square support made up of small lengths of square cross-sectional timber. –see Chocks and Stacks; or a stone support for the waste area immediately behind the coal face. (S.Staffs.).

Cog, -see Chock.

Cog and rung gin, an early form of winding plant operated by horses. This comprised a drum with spokes or rungs, working on a horizontal shaft and mounted directly over the mine shaft. The drum was driven by a crude horizontal cog wheekl the vertical shaft of which was rotated by a long pole or lever to the outer end of which was harnessed a horse or horses, which ran in a circular track around the shaft top. –see Horse whim.

Cogger, a miner engaged on building cogs.

Coke, the cellular residue from the carbonisation of a coking coal in commercial ovens or retorts at a temperatures of about 900ºC.

Coking coal, distinguished from other bituminous coals by its property of undergoing partial fusion on heating and the evolution of gases resulting in a cellular structure to the coke formed.

Cockle-bed, a ded containing ‘mussels’ or non-marine lamellibranches.

Collar, the mouth of the pit shaft; or timbers around the mouth of the pumping shaft which supported the pumping set; or the top bar of a wooden roadway support set. -see Head piece, Cross-piece, Bar or Crowntree.

Collaring buntons, buntons in a shaft for steadying the pumps and taking the vibration.

Colzaline, a petroleum spirit used to fuel safety lamps.

Concealed Coalfield, the part of the coalfield where the coal measures are covered by younger rock strata such as the Permo-Trias. –See also ‘Exposed Coalfield’.

Conductor, another name for a shaft guide rope or guides.

Conduits, -see Congates.

Congates, near horizontal drivages driven cross-measures through a thick coal seam. (S.Staffs.). Also called ‘conduits’.

Consideration, compensation paid to hewers for unforeseen difficulties met with in their work.

Continuous cogs, a chock devised and used in N. Staffs., (Talk O’ th’ Hill Colliery), erected along the roadside forming a good air-tight packing. The timbers were side-lapped at their ends.

Continuous miner, a machine designed principally for driving headings in coal. It cuts the coal and loads it. ‘Joy’ was one of the common types.

Contraband, matches, lighters, cigarettes, etc. banned in the mine.

Control Room, the main communications centre for the colliery.

Conveyor track, the part of a longwall face occupied by the face conveyor.

Convoy, the brake formerly applied to one of the wheels of a coal.

wagon, (N.East).

Coreplugs, -see Stemming.

Corf, Corfe or Corve, (Dutch: Korf), a large wicker basket, usually made of hazel, used for transporting coal from the workings underground to the surface. The corf held about 4 to 7 cwt. of coal; or a shallow wooden box on runners like a sled used for hauling coal out of low workings. (Derbys.); or a measure of capacity for coal used throughout the British coalfields. The weight of the corf varied from area to area and over a period of time. Also called ‘pit boxes’.

Corner rackings, triangular beams of wood used at the corners of rectangular shafts.

Corrity, cross-bedded.

Cottered, a term applied to stone or coal when hard or tough, (N.East).

Coup, an exchange of cavils, (N.East).

Coupler, a man or boy who coupled tubs together; the term also applied to the coupling device. Course, -see Strike.

Coursing or Pillar airing, a method of ventilation in gassy pits where the ventilation current is channelled or ‘coursed’ (or ‘shethed’ in the N. East) through the waste.

Cover or Cover rock, the strata overlying a coal seam, or the earth and soft material from the surface down to the first layer of rock.

Cow, a safety device attached to the back tub of a ‘run’ on a steep inclined road. (N.East). - see Backstay, Devil and Monkey.

Cowl, a type of hudge for winding water from the sump to the surface. Often fitted with a valve that opened automatically for filling and emptying. (Som.).

Crab or Ground crab, a type of windlass used underground near the face. (Lancs.); or a type of capstan usually worked by horses and used for raising and lowering heavy weights such as pumps etc. in the shaft.

Cracket, a low wooden stool or seat used by the hewer when under-cutting the coal. (N.East). - see also Cratch and Stool.

Cradle, a suspended scaffold used in the shaft when repairs were being carried out or during sinking. In later years the shaft men would work from the top of the cage; or a loop made of chain in which men were lowered and raised in the shaft before the advent of the cage. (Mids.). - see also Bant; or a guide used to guide ropes around bends in haulage roads.

Cradling, the stone walling in a shaft.

Cramp, a device for bending tub rails to set the track around a curve on the haulage road. - see also Jim Crow and Rail bender.

Crampet, a bracket used in a pumping shaft to hold the pumps and pipes in place. (Derbys.).

Crane, used to hoist the corves of coal from the tram and swing them on to the rolley, the coals being put by the barrow-man from the working places to the crane, and drawn thence by horses to the shaft, (N.East).

Crane boards, a return airway connected directly with the furnace. (N.East).

Crane brae, a short incline in steep working. (Scot.).

Crane place, the place in the pit where baskets of coal are transferred from the inbye rollies, using cranes, to the railway wagons for onward transport to the shaft, (N.East).

Crank, small coals. (S.Wales).

Craneman or Crane-hoister, a boy managing the crane by which the corves are transferred from the tram to the rolleys and for ‘chalking-on’, i.e. keeping an account of the number transferred. (N.East). –see Flatman.

Crapply, friable.

Crash packing, a technique which allows the roof to cave in under it's own weight as the face advances, thus filling in the waste. Also known as ‘cropping’, ‘drawing the wood’ or ‘total caving’.

Cratch or Cratcher, a small stool of varying design used by colliers when holing-out under the coal particularly when working inclined seams. (Lancs.). - see also Cracket and Stool.

Craw coal, Craws or Crow, a thin seam of inferior coal. (Scot.).

Craw picker, a person who picked stone from coal or shale at the pit top. (Scot.).

Crawley, a short chain conveyor connecting the face conveyor with belt road conveyor.

Crease, a wooden tramway on inclines down which iron shod sledges slide. (Som.).

Creel, a wicker basket used by ‘bearers’ for carrying coal on their back with a head strap for steadying. (Scot.); or a large wicker basket used for winding coal up the shaft. (Scots.).

Creep and Thrust. The gradual lifting of the floor or the gradual caving of the roof and sides caused by the weight of the surrounding strata.

Creeper, a mechanical device, such as a powered chain drive, placed between the rails to assist tubs or mine cars, by engaging the axles of the mine cars, up short inclines or to advance mine cars at a loader or in the pit bottom.

Cribs, segments of timber, iron or concrete, encircling a shaft to form a foundation for the walling or tubbing, also known as a ‘curb’. They were supported at intervals, generally of about 3ft, by a few vertical props and were hung together by planks, termed ‘stringing deals’, which were nailed against them.

Crop, where a seam of coal rises to and is exposed at the surface, short for ‘outcrop’; or to leave a portion of coal at the bottom of a seam in working; also to set out, (N.East). – see also Basset.

Crop coal, bottom coal inadvertently left between the undercut and the intended floor, and subsequently removed to maintain the true floor horizon. Also a term used for coal worked at outcrop, sometimes illegally.

Croppers, shots place around the sides of a sinking shaft after the ‘sumping shots’ have been fired.

Cropping, - see crash packing; also a fine for not sending out a full tub.

Cross-cut or crut, a roadway connecting two other more important roads; or a double-handled saw; or a roadway driven through the strata from one seam to another where the seams are steeply inclined, also called a ‘cross measures drivage’.

Crossgate, a roadway driven at approximately 30-45º to the main gate roads, also known as a ‘slant’, used to illiminate the need to maintain long lengths of gate roads and to facilitate the removal of coal from the face and gates to the main haulage in longwall working. Can be driven in the goaf and is then known as a ‘scour’.

Cross pack, packs arranged across from one roadside pack to another or from one longitudinal pack to another to check the leakage of air through the waste.

Cross-piece, -see Collar, Bar and Crowntree.

Crow coal, a term sometimes used for anthracite due to its shiny black appearance.

Crow picker, -see Craw picker and Batt-picker.

Crown or Crowntree, a flat bar or ‘cross-piece’ used in roof support, (Mids.); or the centre section of a metal arched roof support. Also known in other coalfields as a ‘bow’; or an iron socket on the end of the winding rope that was attached to the cage chains. It was in use before the development of safety devices to prevent overwinding. (Som.).

Crown down, an old term for ripping or taking down the roof of a roadway to make more headroom. (Bris., Som.).

Crowned, when the roof lids and posts all fit well together. (N.Staffs.).

Crown-in, collapse at the surface due to subsidence forming a ‘crown hole’, a circular depression or hole.

Crowntrees, half-round lengths of timber fixed under a roof of a working place. (Scot.).

Crow-stone, a term used for ‘ganister’.

Crozle, to cake or harden, e.g. crozzling- the aggregation of coal when burning, usually in coke making. (Derbys.).

Crump, - see Bump or Weight.

Crush, the crumbling of pillars or the sides of roadways due to strata pressures.

Crusher, a machine for reducing the size of stone, rock or coal.

Crut, a cross-measure tunnel or drift.

Cube or Cupola, a shaft sunk near to the top of a furnace upcast, and holed into the shaft a few fathoms below the surface, with a wide chimney erected over it, rising 30 or 40 feet above the surface. It relieves the pit top from smoke. Called also a tube.

Cuddie or Cuddy, a bogie loaded with weights, as in: ‘Cuddie brae’- a self-acting incline where the cuddie was used to counter balance the weight of the full hutches being lowered down the steep inclined road. (Scots.).

Culm, an inferior type of anthracite or the smalls and slack of smokeless coal. (S.Wales).

Cundie or Cundy, a low narrow passage cut between two roadways to allow supplies to pass through or for ventilation - see also Slit, Sniggett and Snicket; or a water culvert, or the unfilled space between two packwalls; or, in steep longwall workings, a long narrow roadway without rails down which the coal was rolled to be loaded into ‘hutches’ at the bottom. (Scot.).

Cupola, a chimney erected above or close to the upcast shaft to carry away the smoke from the ventilation furnace; or another name for the ventilation furnace.

Curb, a shaft support ring for walling or ‘tubbing’ made of timber (about 4 inches square) or cast iron. - see also Crib. Wooden curbs supported the cleading or backing deals which retained the loose rubbish or sides of the shaft.

Curry pit, a hole, or shallow shaft, between two coal seams, used as a return airway. (Leics.).

Curving, cutting into the whole coal as the preparatory course to blasting or wedging it down.

Cushion pack, a pack formed with loose dirt without walls.

Cut, a shaft underground from one seam to another. – see Drop Shaft and Staple.

Cut-chain inclines, inclines using chains with links where tubs can be attached at intermediate points. (Scot.).

Cut-off, a break in the roof next to the face.

Cutter or Coal cutter, a name given to several different types of coal

cutting machines, but particularly one that has a flat jib fitted with a chain and cutter picks, used mainly to undercut the coal prior to firing down with explosives.

Cutter loader, a machine that cuts coal from the face and loads it on to a conveyor.

Cutter pick, a replaceable cutting tool in a machine used for mining coal or for ripping.

Cutting horizon, a level, usually predetermined, at which a cut is made in the coal on the coalface. This will often be a line in the seam at some distance below the roof or above the floor.

Cutting side, -see Fast side.

Cwar, another word for sandstone. (S. Wales).

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