Pond volume = Surface area (length x width) x depth.
For Imperial, use dimensions in feet and multiply result by 6.25 for gallons
For Metric, use cm dimensions and divide result by 1000 for litres (1 gallon = 4.54 litres)
For an illustrated guide to calculating volumes of ponds of various shapes go to
The onset of winter brings a different set of rules for the pond.
STOP FEEDING fish when water temperature is regularly below 10oC (50oF).
When temperatures are restored to 100C (50oF) or above consistently, feed easily-digested 'wheatgerm-based' foods at first, gradually changing over to the main diet; as autmn approaches and temperatures fall, again use 'wheatgerm-based' foods as a final diet befoire feeding ceases for the winter.
A complete covering of ice over the pond can trap dangerous gases over the water surface. You can maintain an open area of water by means of a floating 'igloo' device which creates a patch of warm air and keeps part of the water surface open.
If you turn off filters over winter, remember they will take some weeks to re-establish their full efficiency when re-started.
Most major aquatic manufacturers have helplines; there are a number of specialist magazines, such as ‘The Water Gardener’ published each month. You can also find extra help at your local Aquarist Society.
(For details of your nearest Society see Federation of British Aquatic Societies)
What Kind of Pond?
Choosing a Liner
Will I need a Filter?
Fish & Plants
Dealing with Green Water Problems
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Last updated January 17, 2002