The initial breakthrough by such as the Wright Brothers is in the past, the third decade of the 20th century was one of immense innovation in all aspects of the science of Aviation. On the civic side, it saw the introduction of both ‘mail’ and ‘passenger’ airlines, with many distance and altitude records broken repeatedly including the first non-stop crossing of both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans.
On the military side, the terrible conflict which engulfed Europe ensured rapid advance in the sophistication of both aircraft and their killing/destructive powers. The war also threw up a generation of aviation giants, strutting daredevils of the aerial dog fight.
DESIGNER DOUGLAS SETS UP IN LOS ANGELES (JULY 22, 1920)
EVENTS AND ADVANCES IN CIVIL AVIATION
Wealthy local sportsman and aviation enthusiast David R. Davis today teamed up with aeroplane designer Donald W. Douglas to form the Davis-Douglas Company. They aim to build the first aircraft capable of flying non-stop across the US, but before they do they will need a more suitable home than their temporary offices behind a barbers shop.
Davis put up $40,000 to start the company. Douglas moved here from Cleveland, Ohio, to design transport aircraft, but has now put that work aside to collaborate with Davis. Brooklyn-born Douglas has strong aircraft design credentials. A graduate of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he was part of the Connecticut Aircraft Company’s design team for the navy’s first dirigible, the DN-1, and worked at the Glenn Martin Company in Los Angeles until it moved to the East Coast in 1916.
HUGE SEAPLANE’S MAIDEN
(LAKE MAGGIORE, ITALY, MARCH 4, 1921)
There was disappointment all round today when one of the most extraordinary aircraft ever built proved that it cannot fly. The gigantic Capronissimo or more properly the Caproni Ca 60, took off from the lake for a moment before nose diving back into the water and crashing. Thankfully test pilot Semprini somehow survived.
Gianni Caproni designed the 76-foot long, 3,200hp monster with three sets of triplane wings. It is powered by 8 Liberty engines, four at the front and four at the back. Capable of taking 100 passengers, it is designed as a scale model of an even bigger machine to fly the Atlantic. Undaunted, Caproni hopes to repair the wrecked machine.
QANTAS INTRODUCES SCHEDULED SERVICES
(AUSTRALIA NOV. 2, 1922)
QANTAS, the fledgling air taxi and charter firm of Queensland and the Northern Territories, now has a real stake in the future. It has gained the airmail contract for the region, and as a result has opened its first scheduled service, flying today from its base field at Charleville to Cloncurry, 557 miles away.
After operating for two years, QANTAS won the tender for the North-East Australian region when the new Air Navigation Act of March last year regulated all British Commonwealth flying. Until then a dozen or so lone operators, mostly war veterans, had tried to offer some sort of service, generally of a fairly makeshift variety. A significant part of QANTAS success is owing th their Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8’s
NEW BRITISH AIRLINE GROUNDED BY STRIKE ACTION (CROYDON, ENGLAND, APRIL 28, 1924)
Britain’s new national airline, Imperial Airways, started flying from London to Paris today, nearly a month after its formation. The delay has been caused by striking pilots who are demanding better pay and conditions. Imperial was formed on April 1 by the amalgamation of four pioneering British airlines, Handley Page Transport, Daimler Airway, Instone Airline and British Marine Air Navigation.
Handley Page W.8 of Imperial Airways
The new company, capitalised at £1,000,000 will take over the aircraft, pilots , stewards and ground personnel of the old companies. State ownership now seems the only way to ensure the future of air travel in Britain.
The privately owned companies had great difficulty operating at a profit, even in the summer months when the traffic is at its highest and despite the fact that, since October 1922, they have not been competing with each other.
Their main continental rivals have long enjoyed a high level of government support, including subsidies on ticket prices, making the four British carriers struggle to survive even more difficult. Amalgamation and state cash should improve the financial results; in addition to the capitalisation, the government has agreed to a further £1,000,000 over the next ten years, £137,000 this year.
Keeping travellers in the style to which they are increasingly becoming accustomed; the spacious interior and luxurious fittings on board the Farman F3.X Jabiru (also known as the F.121), which last year won Frances’ prestigious 500,00 franc Grand Prix des Avions Transports. The Jabiru’s comfortable wicker armchairs are arranged so that each of the nine passengers has a good view through the aeroplane’s large windows.
Four Hispano-Suiza 8Ac 180hp engines supply the power.
PASSENGERS FETED BY LUXURY IN THE AIR
(CROYDON, ENGLAND MAY 1, 1927)
Imperial Airways’ new “flying railway car”, the splendid Armstrong Whitworth Argosy biplane City of Glasgow today added a touch of the Orient Express railway to its London/Paris noon flight: the Silver Wing service.
A first class buffet, silver service and courteous waiter now replace the earlier lunch baskets handed out before take off. Hot soup is followed by a variety of cold meats and other dishes ordered from the cabin steward and served at the seat tables during the 2½ hour
PRICE WAR SPELLS GOOD NEWS FOR TRAVELLERS
(PARIS, OCT.26, 1927)
What looks like an airline price war seems to be underway following today’s announcement by leading French carrier Air Union that it is cutting fares on the busy Paris/London route and creating a new cheaper “second class” service on its aeroplanes. Air Union’s move is in response to the introduction this month by Imperial Airways, the leading British carrier, of a second class economy service on its own London/Paris flights. Those who cannot afford to fly as first-class passengers, with access to a bar and service by an air steward, now have the opportunity to travel more cheaply. Whatever Imperial’s next move against its competitor will be, the air traveller looks certain to benefit.
Luxury Service in the /Air
JUNKERS BUILDS METAL GIANT OF THE SKY
(DESSAU, GERMANY, NOV.6 1929)
German aeroplane makers have come up with a second gigantic all-metal airliner this year - the Junkers G38.
The impressive new machine which made its maiden flight here today, is a landplane. Though large by any standard, its metallic fuselage is dwarfed by enormous wings. Like Dornier, Junkers has pioneered the use of metal in aircraft construction. Particularly the tough alloy Duralminium. The Junkers G38 has a wingspan of 144 feet with four Junkers engines, two of 400 hp and two of 750hp. Twenty-six of the 34 passengers it will carry for Deutche Luft Hansa will be accommodated in the fuselage, with cabins for three more in each root of the wings, and two seated right in the nose. The six passengers flying in the wings enjoy excellent visibility thanks to the windows built into the leading edges.
DORNIER FLYING BOAT HAS TWELVE ENGINES
(LAKE CONSTANCE, OCTOBER 21, 1929)
A German giant took off from the Swiss side of this lake today with its first load of passengers. The Dornier Do X flying boat, the world’s largest and heaviest aircraft, took off with 150 passengers a crew of ten and nine stowaways.
Designed by Claude Dornier, the flying boat was completed at the Alternheim works, on the Swiss side of Lake Constance. The Do X, which flew for the first time on July 25, has a wingspan of 157 feet, and is powered by a dozen 525-hp Bristol Jupiter engines arranged in push-pull pairs above the wings. The ten-man crew is housed in the upper deck, while the lower deck has been split into seven particularly luxurious lounges. Its streamlined hull gives it good landing and take off performance, despite the weight of 21,099 gallons of fuel it carries on take off, stored in its six huge tanks.
EVENTS AND ADVANCES IN MILITARY AVIATION
AUTOGYRO SHOWS OFF FLIGHT POTENTIAL (MADRID, JANUARY 9, 1923)
Juan de la Cierva’s C4 “autogyro” today made an officially observed circular flight of more than 2.5 miles at a height of over 80 feet. It was flown at Madrid’s Cuatro Vientos military airfield by Lieutenant Alejandro Gomez Spencer.
The thinking behind Cierva’s extraordinary machine is to create an aircraft with a very low stalling speed, requiring only very short runways for landing and take-off, making it ideal for short journeys. Unlike the helicopter design, the rotor on top of the machine is not connected to the engine. It is “self-rotating”, as the name implies; the rotor turns in the airflow which is generated by the forward motion of the aircraft. This is provided in the conventional way by an engine and propeller.
The autogyros are built from existing aeroplane components, with a rotor on top to replace the wings. The C4 autogyro (or Autogiro, as Cierva has registered it) flown today has a shortened Hanriot fuselage an 80-hp Le Rhone engine and a 33 foot rotor with four blades.
GLOBE-GIRDLING TEAM MAKES THE WORLD SMALLER (SEATTLE , WASHINGTON, SEPT. 28, 1924)
Great excitement and much national pride greeted the return to Seattle of the US Army Air Service (USAAS) DWC’s Chicago and New Orleans today. The historic first circumnavigation of the world by air is complete. The journey of over 26,345 miles has taken 175 days, with the loss of two machines.
The crews also recorded the first staged Pacific and east/west South Atlantic crossings. Flying time was 363 hours. Successful crewmen were lieutenants Lowell Smith and Leslie Arnold (the Chicago) and Erik Nellson and John Harding (the New Orleans)
Iceland to Fredreriksdal in Greenland had been the longest non-stop haul about 875 miles. The crews touched down again in North America on Labrador, on August 31.
AIRSHIP MAKES RENDEZVOUS WITH CARRIER
(NEWPORT R.I. JANUARY 27, 1928)
Two of the US Navy’s newest ships, one of the air and the other of the sea, met off the coast here today when the airship USS Los Angeles showed off its manoeuvrability by landing on the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga without the benefit of a mooring mast.
The Los Angeles proved that it was feasible for a lighter-than-air craft to moor to a ship when it was guided to the mast-equipped steamship Patoka. Today’s accomplishment was probably only made possible because of the airships five reversible engines, which have a combined 2,635hp output. The Los Angeles was moored to the stern of the aircraft carriers flight deck. It transferred passengers to the Saratoga and delivered fuel and supplies, demonstrating that in the future airships may be able to accompany the fleet.
A strange flying machine took to the air here today when Etienne Oehmichen, a former Peugeot engineer, flew his twin rotor helicopter, which has a 5000-cubic foot balloon on top. The balloon has been added just to get the machine airborne and increase its stability, and Oehmichen plans to omit it and fit a bigger engine than the current 25-hp Dutheil et Chalmers. A more powerful engine, he says, could drive four rotors . Today’s flight , lasting a minute and a half at a height of about 25 feet, was the first free flight of a piloted helicopter since 1907.
NOBLEMAN’S HELICOPTER HOVERS IN THE AIR
(PARIS JANUARY 11, 1922)
The first helicopter ever to hover above the ground for a full minute did so at the airfield at Issy-les-Moulineaux here today. The machine was the third example built by a Spaniard, Marquis Pateras de Pescara. It was flown in a hanger of France’s Service Technique Aeronautique.
Powered by a 170hp Hispano-Suiza engine, the strange looking machine was lifted by two rotors , each with six biplane blades. The marquis has incorporated a system to alter the pitch, or angle, of the rotor blades in flight. If the engine should fail, the rotors will continue to turn due to the airflow generated by the aircrafts descent.
FRENCH AEROPLANE DOES WITHOUT AN AIRSTRIP
(LONDON JUNE 30, 1925)
Do airlines need airfields? French airline Air Union has decided to experiment with an alternative; aircraft that float. An Air Union Schreck FBA 19HMT 3, flown by company chief pilot Robert Bajac, took off from the river Seine in Paris, then landed on the River Thames in London.
The Schreck can land wherever there is a sizeable body of water and is able to deliver passengers right to the heart of any city with a river. But it is unlikely to have any effect on commercial services due to its small passenger and freight load, in this case just two paying passengers or one plus freight.
SCIENTIST CLAIMS ROCKET BREAKTHROUGH
(AUBURN, MASS. MARCH 16, 1926)
Dr. Robert H. Goddard, who has speculated that it will one day be possible to launch a rocket to the moon, fired his latest propulsion device today in a field. Its flight lasted 2.5 seconds. It reached a speed of 70 mph travelled 184 feet and attained an altitude of 41 feet. Despite these modest performance figures, Goddard is claiming it as a very significant accomplishment: the first successful launch of a liquid-fuelled rocket, a concept he has been working on since 1921. The device flown today weighed 5.75 pounds, before being loaded with 4.5 pounds of fuel. Goddard, who uses liquid oxygen and gasoline this time, has previously concentrated on solid propellant.
AUTOGYRO CROSSES THE CHANNEL (PARIS SEPTEMBER 18, 1928)
Juan de La Cierva, inventor of the autogyro, pulled off a triumph today when he flew one of his unusual machines - the C.8L-111, powered by a 180-hp Lynx engine - across the English Channel with a passenger on board. La Cierva was accompanied on this first international flight by autogyro by Henri Bouche, editor of French magazine L’Aeronautique.
They crossed the English coast at a height of 4000 feet and landed a Calais before flying on to le Bourget airport near Paris, where La Cierva gave a flying display, in particular showing off the autogyro’s ability to land easily in confined spaces.
AMERICAN PILOTS FLY FOKKER TO NORTH POLE (SPITZBERGEN, NORWAY, MAY 9, 1926)
Just as Roald Amundsen was preparing for another crack at flying over the North Pole, a US Navy officer has apparently captured the honour of being first. It was a blow for the Norwegian explorer who was the first man to reach the South Pole, but he sportingly embraced the victor. Lt. Commander Richard E. Byrd’s expedition took off just after midnight from Kings Bay, Norway, with Floyd Bennett as pilot and Byrd navigating. The team claim to have circled the pole at 9.02am in their Fokkker F.VII-3m Josephine Ford named after the daughter of owner Edsel Ford, the attempt's co-sponsor, who is the son of industrialist Henry Ford, John D. Rockefeller was the second backer. The only scare of the 16 hour, 1535 mile return flight came when an oil leak developed in one engine
NORGE AIRSHIP COMES A CLOSE SECOND (TELLER, ALASKA, MAY 14, 1926)
The Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen landed here today after an airship flight from Spitzbergen lasting 70 hours. Having been beaten by Byrd in making the first flight by any aircraft over the North Pole, it is some consolation that he has made the first flight over the pole by airship and the first flight across the whole Arctic, some 2485 miles. He and helmsman Oskar Wisting are the first to visit both poles.
Amundsen’s airship the N1 Norge (Norway) sustained some damage to its envelope, probably caused by lumps of ice spinning off the propellers and on landing. It cannot fly and may be abandoned, in which case Amuindsen will lose the $46,000 return price from the Italian government, who owns the airship. The Norge’s commander was Italian Colonel Umberto Nobile, appointed as a condition of borrowing the Norge, and there are other Italians in the crew. One US crewman, Lincoln Ellsworth, took part in a previous attempt
COBHAM IS HERO AFTER AUSTRALIA FLIGHT
(LONDON OCTOBER 1, 1926)
British members of parliament and their friends were among spectators who watched Alan Cobham make a spectacular landing alongside the Houses of Parliament on the river Thames today. It was the end of his 26,703 mile flight from England to Australia and back.
It was a triumph marred by the death on the outward leg of his engineer and friend of long standing, Arthur Elliot, Cobham and crew left from the river Medway, Kent, on June 30, in the same de Havilland D.H.50J he had used to reach Rangoon and Cape Town, modified as a seaplane, it carried a boomerang as a mascot.
The extremes of weather added to Cobham’s discomfort and uncharacteristic depression on the flight. The Elliot tragedy occurred over Iraq near the Persian Gulf, when he was shot by a Bedouin tribesman. A severe sandstorm had forced the aircraft to fly low, making it an easy target. After ti bullet ripped through the aeroplane, Elliot passed a note to Cobham saying a petrol pipe had burst and he himself was “bleeding a pot of blood”. Cobham landed at Basra, but Elliot died in hospital that same night.
THE MAN WHO FOUGHT TO THE END OF HIS DREAM
(PARIS MAY 21, 1927)
Charles Augustus Lindbergh, or “Lindy” is a private, self-contained man. Dick Blyth, one of two pressmen assigned to cover Lindbergh’s preparations for the trans-Atlantic attempt, describes their sharing a room as being like two strange wildcats, each in his own hole. Twenty-five years old, over 6 feet tall, clean cut, good-looking, enigmatic Lindbergh shuns publicity, a peculiar characteristic for someone who has put his name in every newspaper headline. But he was a barnstorming stunt pilot at 22 years old, has been a US Army Air/Service Corps Reserve pilot since 1925, has baled out of three crashing aircraft, and inaugurated the US Post Office’s CAM-2 air mail route between St. Louis and Chicago last year.
Brought up in Minnesota, as a boy, Lindy had a passion for aeroplanes. His early life was as unusual as his later years. At six he had an 0.22 rifle; he drove the family Ford model T at 11, and ran the family farm at 16. Having been coerced into taking a mechanical engineering course at the University of Wisconsin in 1920, he proved a poor student and left. In a brief interlude between leaving university and travelling to Nebrasks “Lindy” learned to fly, purchasing his own war surplus Jenny in 1922.
EARHART IS FIRST WOMAN TO
FLY THE ATLANTIC
(BARRY, WALES, JUNE 18, 1928)
Amelia Earhart, American former holder of the world altitude record, today became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic. She was one of three crew who took off from Trepassy, Newfoundland bound for Ireland.
The noted pilot had to content herself with being just a passenger in the Fokker F.VIIb-3m Friendship flown by Wilmer Stulz and “Slim” Gordon. At 2.51pm (British time) yesterday, the aircraft took off. Earhart sat between fuel tanks and kept a log, her writing shaken by the vibrations as the aircraft batled through fog, rain and, later darkness, with its engine exhausts like ‘glowing meteors’. The crossing took 24 hours and 49 minutes. With just 50# US gallons of fuel left, the craft landed on the other side of the ocean - but in Wales,
‘SMITHY’ FLIES “SOUTHERN CROSS” TO PACIFIC TRIUMPH
(BRISBANE, JUNE 9, 1928)
“Southern Cross” at Brisbane
Two Australian pilots have pulled off the breathtaking feat of flying across the largest ocean in the world. Charles “Smithy” Kingsford-Smith and Charles Ulm, with Americans Harry Lyon and James Warner as navigator, landed at Brisb ane’s Eagle Farm airfield this morning after their 7,316 mile flight from America via Hawaii and Fiji.
The four left San Francisco on May 31 in their Fokker FVIIb-3m Southern Cross. Flying westward through the night they landed at Wheeler Field, Honolulu after 27 hours in the air. But when the Southern Cross had been refuelled it was too heavy to take off from the short runway. It had to be moved to a beach, and took to the sky again (contd.. Below)
Southern Cross Contd.
Again on the morning of June 3, bound for Fiji.
En route the radio failed and one engine ran badly,l but the worst threat was the weather, with storm clouds forcing detours of many miles. After 34 hours of tough flying they landed in Suva. When they were airborne again their compass failed; then they ran into more severe weather, including thunderstorms, which rocked the Fokker violently. The crew fought for control of the craft and nearly lost it, but after four desperate hours the storm subsided and, 21 hours later, they touched down triumphantly at their destination.
BRITAIN’S AIR FORCE PILOTS SHOW OFF SKILLS
(LONDON JULY 3, 1920)
The British public was treated to a breathtaking display of flying today at Hendon aerodrome just north of London. The event was the Royal Air Force Pageant, held to raise money for the RAF Memorial Fund. The pageant was intended as a one off show but, if the enthusiasm of the 40,000 spectators who jammed all roads leading to the aerodrome is anything to go by, it is unlikely to be the last.
Fighters, bombers and trainers were thrown about the sky by their pilots in daredevil smoke-trailed aerobatics. Others fought air battles, dived on mock trenches and dispatched a balloon to the ground in flames.
BARNSTORMING PILOTS FLY IN SEARCH OF FAME AND GLORY, BUT MOST FIND STARDOM ELUSIVE
(OMAHA, NEBRASKA, DEC. 14, 1921)
To the young farm lad who just saw a biplane buzz the hen house, the pilot is Sir Lancelot, Ivanhoe, and the whole of King Arthur’s round table rolled into one; a knight of the air on a petrol driven steed: the “barnstormer”.
A few like Ormer Locklear, who plunged to his death at night bathed in spotlights while making a movie last year, fit the romantic
Image. They earn up to $3,000 a day, fly daredevil feats before large crowds in new aircraft, becoming celebrities. But most of the hundreds of barnstormers who criss-cross the US are lucky if they make that much money in a year. They sleep under their craft’s wing or in a ten-cent room each night.
BOUNDARIES PUSHED FORWARD AS MAN MASTERS AIR (SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, MAY 3, 1923)
Another demonstration of the growing capabilities of the aeroplane took place today when US army Air Service lieutenants Oakley G Kelly and John A McReady became the first to fly across the continent non-stop. Flying a single-engine Fokker T-2., they travelled 2650 miles from Roosevelt Field on Long Island to Rockwell Field near San Diego in 26 hours 50 minutes. Their average speed during the long flight was 88.2mph.
The Fokker T-2 powered by a 400-hp Liberty engine, had been extensively modified in order to accommodate the593.41 gallons of fuel needed for the non-stop flight. The fuel was stored in extra tanks built into the wings. This additional weight in turn, meant tha the aeroplane’s landing gear had to be replaced. The Fokker T-2’s designers were forced to borrow the considerably stronger landing gear of a Martin MB-1 bomber.
17 Pilots in a spectacular array of differing aeroplanes, from fighters to bulky airliners, lined up yesterday for the second King’s Cup air race, which took place over a 794-mile course.;
Open to British aircraft, it has a handicap system allowing an equal chance for all types of aircraft. The race was won today by Captain Frank Courtney in a Siskin II fighter-trainer.
Air racing is drawing large crowds here and abroad, and the struggle for speed between French and US racers has caused a proliferation of new machines capable of flying at over 230-mph.
D.H.( entry to
FIFTY FEARED DEAD AIRSHIP DISASTER (TULON, FRANCE DEC 28, 1923)
The Dixmude the biggest airship in the French fleet, is assumed lost with all hands after disappearing over the Mediterranean in violent weather. The bodies of its commander, Lt. Jean du Plessis de Grendan, and one unidentified crewman have been recovered, with some wreckage. The other 50 crew members are presumed dead. The Dixmude, a Zeppelin appropriated from Germany as part of war reparations, was returning home after a successful stay in North Africa. Its crew were in high spirits, looking forward to Christmas leave.
POLAR EXPLORER’S AIRBORNE EXPEDITION FAILS (SPITZBERGEN, NORWAY, JULY 16, 1925)
Roald Amundsen, the first man to reach the South Pole, returned here today from a dramatic atempt to fly over the North Pole. With American colleague Lincoln Ellsworth and four crew, he set out on May 21 hoping to navigate two ice-adapted Dornier Wal flying boats to the Pole. They returned with just one aircraft, using their combined fuel. Fog beset them on their outward journey and they lost their way. After eight hours flying they set down 150 miles from their goal. Unable to take off, they laboured for 26 days to build an ice runway from which to take off.
DOOLITTLE RACES TO SCHNEIDER CUP WIN
(CHESAPEAKE BAY, OCT. 26, 1925)
A US Army test pilot today ensured that the Schneider trophy for seaplanes remained in the USA. The victorious airman is Lt. James H Doolitle who flew a Curtiss RC3-2 biplane.
Doolittle easily won the world’s premier seaplane race over the bay, with an average speed of 232.56 mph. The event, said one spectator, was more a procession than a race. The British had an adventurous monoplane design with cantilever wings in the Supermarine S.4, but it was subject to wing flutter. It stalled and side slipped into the water during trials and a Gloucester biplane was used instead. Italy also entered a monoplane, the M33, which was withdrawn due to engine trouble.
LINDBERGH FLIES ‘SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS ‘
INTO HISTORY (PARIS MAY, 21, 1927)
Captain Chas. A. Lindbergh, a Us Army reserve officer, landed at Paris today to fulfil what many thought was the impossible dream: flying the Atlantic ocean, solo, without stopping. His flight from New York makes him the 92nd person to fly the Atlantic, but he is the very first to manage it alone and has become an instant hero. Lindbergh wins the £25,000 Orteig prize for the trip, which at 3,614 miles, is also an un ratified world record.
Lindbergh seized the opportunity of high pressure over the Atlantic and consequent fair weather. Yesterday in the early hours he was at Roosevelt Field, NY, to see his aircraft , the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis towed and pushed to the 5,000 foot runway.
With so much fuel on board the tires bulged and sank into the clay,l but at 7.54am Lindbergh started his take-off run. The Spirit of St. Louis strained under the load, but Lindbergh lifted into the air with very little runway to spare.
Britain retained the coveted Schneider trophy today, fighting off a strong Italian challenge and setting a world speed record of 328.629 mph. The US Navy refused to let Lt. Al Williams compete as a private individual.
Britain won with a new streamlined seaplane, designed by R.J. Mitchell, with a super charged Rolls Royce 1,90-hp engine burning a potent mix of fuels. The aircraft, the Supermarine S6, is a low-wing monoplane flown by Royal Air Force pilots and known to be capable of much higher speeds than those achieved today.
In perfect weather, Flying Officer H R D Waghorn started first, used full throttle to lift out of the water and lapped the course at up to 331 mph. On the last lap his engine cut out and he landed short, unaware that he was in fact flying an extra, seventh lap of honour. The Italians were hit by dangerous defects. Lts R. Cadringher and G. Monti, in Macci M.67s, were choked and blinded by exhaust fumes, a fault thought to have caused the death in practice recently. Monti was also scalded by engine coolant.
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