GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS(U)

Udged, sounding hollow or unsound when the roof is tested by tapping with a hammer, it was said to ‘knock udged’. (Derbys.).

Undercast or Under-gate, an air-course or ‘wind-road’ carried beneath another roadway. -see also Air crossing and Air bridge.

Under-clays, a bed of fireclay or clunch found immediately beneath a coal seam. The under-clays are the remains of the soil in which the vegetation that formed the coal seam grew and often contain the fossilised remains of plant roots.

Undercut, a section at the base of the coal seam that has been cut away by hand or machine to make it easier to bring down the main body of coal by hand or by using explosives. –see Pom Pom.

Underlooker, a man employed to supervise the underground workings of a mine. He was responsible directly to the manager or the owner. (Lancs.).

Undermanager, usually the person in charge of underground mining operations, possessing at least a second class certificate of competency and is next in authority to a manager or deputy manager. An earlier name for such a person was ‘Underviewer’.

Underset, props set at angles towards the face or away from the dip, i.e. other than the perpendicular. –see also Overset.

Underviewer, -see Undermanager.

Unholed, boardgates or headings which come to a dead end and are not driven through or thirled into an adjoining roadway. (Yorks.). A blind heading.

Up-brow, an inclined plane worked to the rise. (Lancs.).

Upcast or Upcast shaft, the shaft up which the air returns to the surface after having ventilated the workings of a mine.

Up-leap, an upthrow fault. (Mids.).

Upset, a short working place that is driven to the rise; or a bolthole or heading put through between two levels in steep inclined edge coal seams. (Scots.).

Upstanding, a term used in stoop and room working where the pillars are sound and the roof is safe. (Scot.).

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