This page contains information about David Colville, the founder of the firm, and about Sir John Craig, who worked for the firm for 67 years and expanded the business to its dominant position in the industry.

David Colville

The Founder Of Colville's

From Colville's Magazine, January 1920

February 17th, 1871. A memorable day in the history of the firm - and, indeed, in the history of the iron and steel industry of Scotland ! For on that date the first sod was cut for the foundations of the works known far and wide to-day as the Dalzell Steel and Iron Works.

Mr. David Colville, Senior, the founder of the firm, had been on the outlook for a site in Lanarkshire suitable for the construction of a malleable iron work, and for the purpose had feued, from the father of the present Lord Hamilton of Dalzell, a portion of land at Crosshill, Motherwell. Here, then, the new works were begun, almost forty-nine years ago.
It was characteristic of Mr. Colville, of his thoroughness and close attention to detail, that he personally saw every stone of the foundation laid. And that they were indeed well and truly laid is proved by the fact that those original foundations are in existence to-day !

This was not Mr. Colville's first connection with the iron trade.
Born at Campbeltown in 1813, in the early days of his manhood he was associated in business with his father, Mr. Robert Colville, owner of a number of coasting vessels. But after his father's death, David Colville migrated to Glasgow, became keenly interested in the possibilities of iron manufacture, and in 1860, as joint-partner in the firm of Colville & Gray, established the Clifton Iron Works at Coatbridge.

Ten years later this partnership came to an end; and having gained valuable experience Mr. Colville set out upon the fresh venture at Motherwell - with which place his name was henceforth to be indissolubly associated.
It was a modest beginning at Dalzell, compared with the extensive, humming hive of industry that now exists on the spot, with its five thousand workers, turning out ten thousand tons of steel in a week. When the actual manufacture of malleable iron bars commenced in 1872, the Dalzell Works. Comprised 20 puddling furnaces, 2 ball furnaces, an 18-inch mill and a 12-inch mill, and gave employment to two hundred men.

But under the energetic direction and close supervision of Mr. Colville the Dalzell Works soon gained a high reputation for the quality of its manufactures. And when tragic disaster befell the Tay Bridge in the great storm of December, 1879, and the important contract for the supply of iron bars for a new bridge was secured and successfully executed by the young Motherwell firm, the corner had been fairly turned; and from that time forward its record was one of steady expansion and increasing prosperity.

The next important step taken at Dalzell and one which was to have far-reaching results-was to begin - the manufacture of Steel.

C l o s e l y associated with Mr. David Colville, Senior, in the growth and development of t h e Works were his three sons, John, Archibald and David. These were the early days of steelmaking in Scotland; but at Newton (Hallside Steelworks) Siemens' plant had been laid down, and Mr. David Colville, junior, spent some years there making a thorough study of the processes employed.

Armed with this experience, he joined his father and brothers at Dalzell, and five Siemens' furnaces, each of ten tons capacity, were erected there. At the same time a steam hammer, plate mill, and shearing plant were installed; so that the Works could now undertake the supply of both ship and boiler plates.

The firm early established a strong connection with America; and it is notable that the first steel plates rolled in the United States were made from slabs supplied by Dalzell. The products of the Motherwell works speedily became known and valued in Germany also; and the first Atlantic greyhound constructed in that country was built entirely of Dalzell plates.
For many years, throughout the continuous development and prosperity of the Works, Mr. David Colville, Senior, devoted himself wholly to its interests, guiding by his ripe wisdom and experience the energy and enterprise of those who were worthily to succeed him.

From the first he had shown keen appreciation of the value of a good workman, and had established the most friendly relationship with his employees. Their comparatively small numbers in those days enabled him to keep in touch with each and to take an intimate personal interest in their affairs. He never forgot those who had served him well, and had a large circle of old workers to whom he was in the habit of lending a helping hand. Some of the senior employees to-day can clearly recall how Mr. Colville's daily progress between the railway station and the Works was apt to be a lengthy one, delayed as he was by the numbers who intercepted him, to receive kindly greetings, good advice, and very often monetary aid in their difficulties.
Striking testimony to the loyalty to the Firm inspired by its founder, and maintained by his successors, is to be found in the fact that when King George visited Dalzell Works in September, 1917, and a large number of old employees had the honour of being presented to His Majesty, there were then on the pay roll 23 with over forty, 50 with thirty-five, 99 with thirty, 145 with twenty-five, and 147 with twenty years' continuous service.

Mr. David Colville, Senior, was a man of the highest moral character, of unflinching rectitude and of deeply religious nature; all his life an ardent temperance reformer; and withal of a most genial and kindly disposition, beloved and trusted by all who knew him.

Shortly after the establishment of the Dalzell Works Mr. Colville came to reside at Hawthorn Cottage, Brandon Street, Motherwell, but later removed to Glasgow. In June, 1895, he and Mrs. Colville celebrated their golden wedding, receiving from the Works an illuminated address, with other handsome gifts, and-what Mr. Colville treasured most - an album signed by every employee at Dalzell.

Mr. Colville died in 1897, at the age of eighty-four, full of years and honour and revered by all - a man who will long be remembered for his shining qualities of heart and head, a captain of industry who contributed largely to the commercial supremacy of his country.

A Reminiscence of the Founder.

By " Knowetap Laddie " (Dalzell), Colville's Magazine 1921.

As this number of our Magazine celebrates the Jubilee of the Company, the writer takes the liberty of relating to its many readers an incident, trifling in itself, but revealing the real kind-heartedness of Mr. David Colville, Senior, the bounder of the concern.
When a little lad attending Dalziel School, I, along with two others, one day ran behind Mr. David Colville's cab. When someone shouted
" Sweep behind. !
Draw your whop an' never mind ! "
the driver promptly responded ; and in our haste to get clear wee Tam Twaddell got caught by one of the spikes which guarded the hind axle.
A passer-by, noticing the accident, shouted to the driver, who drew up ; and Mr. Colville peered out to see what was the matter. After getting the full particulars, he patted wee Tam on the head and told him not to cry. The driver exclaimed in a gruff tone, " Serves him richt ! " But Mr. Colville said, " Don't be hard on the laddie. I've often run behind a cab myself when I was a boy. Where do you live ! "
" Ask they twa," said wee Tam, pointing to Ronald Ross and myself.
After putting wee Tam into the cab, Ronald and I were told to jump in also ; and Mr. Colville ordered the driver to turn and take wee Tam to Dr. Fotheringham to get his wound dressed. After first aid had been rendered, Mr. Colville gave each of us a silver coin and drove us to Crossstane Place ; when Ronald and I took wee Tam home, all much impressed by the kindness we had received.

Colville's - The Company and Its Allied Concerns - Colville's Magazine, 1920.

DAVID COLVILLE & SONS, Ltd., is a Private Limited Liability Company, and had built up the Dalzell Steel and Iron Works, in Motherwell, to be the largest individual Steel Works in the country before the War.
The Company had no connection with outside concerns until January, 1915, when it took a controlling interest in the Fullwood Foundry Company, which was then about to be started for the manufacture of Ingot Moulds and similar castings.
In October, 1915, at the request of the Government, the Company agreed to purchase and utilise for the production of urgent War Material, Clydebridge Steel Works, as these Works were idle and there appeared no prospect of their being re-started unless the Company took them over.

About the same time the Company took lease of the Steel Works at Glengarnock, with similar objects in view. Later, again at the request of the Government, the whole of the Works were purchased, including the Steel Works, Blast Furnaces, Chemical Works, etc.

The country was still critically short of Steel; and once again the Government approached the Company and begged it to extend the Works at Clydebridge and Glengarnock. The construction of a new Melting Shop and Cogging Mill at Clydebridge, and a Melting Shop and large Bar Mill at Glengarnock, all of the most modern design, was, therefore, commenced in October, 1916.

In order that the Company might be assured of its Coal supplies, it entered into an arrangement, as from 1st January, 1917, whereby it purchased the old-established business of Messrs. Archibald Russell, Limited, who had extensive Collieries in Lanarkshire and Stirlingshire. The purchase was on the basis of Messrs. Archibald Russell, Ltd., obtaining an interest in Messrs. David Colville & - Sons, Ltd., and being represented on the Board by three of their Directors-Mr. William Russell, C.B., Mr. Jackson Russell, and Mr. Thomas G. Hardie.

The next development of the Company was an arrangement for the exchange of Shares with its largest customer, Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Limited. The relationship with this firm had always been of the friendliest; and in order that this might be continued on a commercial basis, an exchange of Shares took place between the Companies as from January, 1919, although the number of such Shares is not sufficient to give either Company a controlling interest in the other Company.
Quite recently the Ordinary Shares of Messrs. Smith & M'Lean, Limited, who have Sheet and Galvanizing Works at Gartcosh, Milnwood, Mavisbank (Glasgow), and Port Glasgow, and who were large customers of the Company, became available; and the Company decided that it was in its interests to secure the control of this concern.

The Company had purchased, shortly after the Armistice, the Inshaw Works, situated between Wishaw and Motherwell; and these were, ultimately, found to be suitable, with alterations, for a Steel Foundry with Electric Furnaces to make Light Castings and special Tool Steels. A proposal was made to the Company to take over the Inshaw Works; and it was arranged that these should be put under the control of a new Company, to be called The Clyde Alloy Steel Company, Ltd., the bulk of whose Shares are held by Messrs. David Colville & Sons, Ltd.


1874 - 1957

Sixty-Seven Years with Colvilles, 1888 - 1955.

The unique association of Sir John Craig with the Colville companies has an interest for a wider circle of people than those who have had the pleasure of working with him over the years.
The Board of Colville's asked Mr. David Murray, who was employed for a time at the works and knows the history of the Scottish steel trade, to tell this story.

When Alexander Whamond, the dominie, told the class, in the bright August of 1888, that the iron and steel works a few hundred yards away in Crosshill Street, Motherwell was looking for a smart office boy, he could hardly have imagined that the lad who ran along to apply for the job would stay with the firm for the whole working span of a long life. And when William Currie, the works cashier signed on the thirteen-year-old boy at five shillings a week, he could hardly have thought that he was at engaging the future chairman of the firm, and one who would hold that position for almost forty years.
John Craig, the lad in question, was the son and grandson of ironworkers. Born at Clydesdale, New Stevenston, on the 11th December, 1874, whence his father Tom Craig, a furnaceman and strict Presbyterian, had followed his trade to Motherwell, he was used to the flaming furnaces and forges, and to the clang of metal on metal. But he had only one conscious ambition - that was never to serve behind a counter as a shopkeeper. He little dreamed that he was destined to become the main architect of the modern Scottish iron and steel industry, the massive trade which knits together the whole economic and industrial fabric of his native land.

But in Colvllles he had found his work. 'Blessed is the man who has found his work, let him ask for no other blessing . . . ' wrote Thomas Carlyle. Even at thirteen John Craig started with an interest already quickened by experience. Like other boys of his day, he had been in the habit of going into the works with meals for his father. On top of that, he had earned a ha'penny for each of nine weekly visits, carrying food to a hammer driver.
The big hammer was the pride and glory of the little Dalzell works. Weighing 150 tons in all, it banged steel ingots down into slabs for the plate mill. Its thudding noise was heard not only in the schoolroom, but all over Motherwell, for though the town was growing, it was still only a small place. It boasted few signs of becoming the steel capital of Scotland.

The malleable iron forge set up by David Colville in 1871 was a modest establishment. With its twenty puddling furnaces and two mills, it was completely dwarfed by half a dozen other wrought iron works in the West of Scotland. The 'Globe' in Motherwell had fifty furnaces and eight rolling mills. Even the new steel works that the Colvilles built alongside, and which went into action in 1880, was a small affair. Its four 12 ton Siemens open hearth melting furnaces turned out only about 500 tons of ingots a week. One very ordinary steel furnace to-day does more than three times that tonnage in same time. The whole steel plant in these days spread over less than fourteen acres, of which only one acre was roofed. One may compare that with the square mile set aside for the new works at Ravenscraig, and the vast areas under cover.

But David Colville, who had come from Campbeltown to make Iron in Coatbridge before moving to Motherwell, had sited his new venture well, and his three sons, John, Archibald and David, had buckled down to making the most of it with great zeal. These men were the mentors of the boy John Craig when he arrived to look after the ink wells and stationery, and to help keep the books.

From them he imbibed deep, broad and lasting principles. At the same time, he gained a magnificent training in all departments of the iron and steel industry as it was then. For all that, and indeed because of that, he might easily have lost no time in marketing his services elsewhere, had he been moved by ambition of the common mould.
The resources mustered by the partnership of David Colville and Sons were still small. The firm did not seem to be marked out for future greatness. It had indeed won a great reputation on the wrought iron side by supplying all the bars to build anew the Tay Bridge, which had been destroyed in the great storm of 1879. But it still had to make its name with the newfangled mild steel which went into the Forth Bridge. For that big job it had to rest content with a contract for rivet making material.
Gradually, however, it made its way. One of John Craig's jobs, as he grew a little older, was to keep the 'Yankee slab book'.

The firm was then busy shipping the steel slabs for the first plates ever rolled in the United States. He was also concerned with the dispatch of the first steel plates built into an ocean going liner in Germany. In those days, his working motto was, as it still is, 'never leave to-day's work till tomorrow'. They tell how James McSkimming, his chief, had to ration out the orders he gave to young Craig for entering. No matter what work was piled upon him, he finished it that working day, even if it meant staying long after closing time.

John Craig worked, and worked hard, not because he was driven to it, but because he liked it. He found happiness in doing whatever came to his hand. That quality, the natural outcome of his temperament, and of the principles instilled in him, marked him out.

When John Colville entered Parliament in 1895, John Craig, then only twenty-one was entrusted with his duties at the Royal Exchange in Glasgow. There he represented the firm which by this time had been formed into a private limited company and he rubbed shoulders with men twice and three times his age.

The daily journey to Glasgow by train gave him a chance, which he seized, to continue that education which had been interrupted when he was a boy, and to expand it along lines that his night-school classes did not cover. He read Shakespeare and such other great works of poetry and prose as he could lay his hands on. At the same tame, the Bible which he had been taught at his mother's knee and from his father's lips, was never far from him.

About this time he began to be engrossed in the work of the Young Men's Christian Association. Appointed secretary of a local society in 1894, he was elected its President in 1900.
These very active years with the Y.M.C.A. were among the most fruitful and formative of his whole life. As he says to-day, he learned more about human relations in Y.M.C.A. committees than anywhere else. That is not hard to understand. All badges of social or commercial rank were left outside the door, and the discussions produced decisions from the interplay of fact, reason and personality.

Now President of the Scottish National Council of Y.M.C.A's., he is to this day an ordinary member. 'Why shouldn't I be', he says, 'if you don't look at the colour of my hair'.

He never planned his personal career in advance. But the passing years were now shaping it. In 1901 he became a very youthful elder of the then Dalziel Free Church, a church office which he still holds more than half a century later. And he married Jessie Sommerville, a school-teacher who had come to Motherwell from Kilwinning. More than the World knows, she sharpened his thinking by the vigour of her own personality. Her ready acceptance of the major share of family building - there are two sons and three daughters - and her complete lack of ambition for herself gave him an unusual freedom to devote his energies to his main task.

That same year, John Colville was suddenly struck down amid crowded days at only 49. His Parliamentary duties had lately taken up much of his time but he was chairman, and his early death put a heavier burden on those who remained at the head of the Company.

John Craig shouldered his share of work to such purpose that in 1910, Archibald Colville who had succeeded as chairman after the death of his brother, asked him to become a director. Though he had already 23 years of experience behind him, the ironworkers son was then only 36.

Of necessity, some of the more detailed work connected with his outside interests had to be given up. But the new appointment which might have turned the head of many, did not affect his daily way of life. As a director, he practiced the same unstudied diligence as when he was an office boy, a clerk or a departmental chief.
'Seest thou a man diligent in his business, he shall stand before kings'.

The years rolled on, and the shouts of war sounded through Motherwell. At Dalzell works the big slabbing hammer at which the boy John Craig used to marvel had long since given place to a powerful cogging mill, and a big expansion scheme had been timeously put in hand in 1912. Then the biggest single plant in the country making wrought iron and steel with a payroll nearing three thousand, it still represented the whole growth of Colvilles.

For the first time the Company extended its interests outside Dalzell. Early in 1915 it took a controlling share in the Fullwood foundry Company, then about to start the manufacture of ingot moulds and heavy castings. John Craig took a very special interest in this new venture, his first outside Dalzell.

Second only to Colvilles his chairmanship of Fullwood headed the long list of his commercial appointments in seniority, and to this day, he is a familiar figure at the foundries. This was his first grooming in the complicated task of forming, building and sometimes rescuing industrial companies.

As the war intensified, and the struggling country needed more and more metal, the Government asked Colvllles to become a focal point for the expansion of the Scottish iron and steel industry.

Though Colvilles of Motherwell had prospered, some other steel companies in Scotland had run into difficulties. The works of the Clydebridge Steel Company at Cambuslang were idle and the Ministry of Munitions asked Colvilles to take the whole plant over and get it going. It was bought in October, 1915 and is now one of the main Colville production units. About the same time, the steel side of the Glengarnock works was leased, and shortly afterwards, in July, 1916, the entire plant was bought, including the blast furnaces and Bessemer converters.

For the first time, the company found itself making pig iron. On a point of historical interest, it revived the production of Bessemer steel in Scotland and carried on the process until the end of the war.

While Archibald Colville, as chairman, and David Colville were in command of the general situation, much of the gruelling labour concerned with these vital developments outwith Motherwell fell to the willing hands of John Craig. He had the complete confidence of the Colville brothers. They knew he would deal with all the problems as they arose. It was not merely a question of bringing other undertaking into the Colville circle and charging them with the Colville spirit and technique. The growing Dalzell works had to be kept going at full pressure and in addition undertake completely new lines of manufacture. It was then that Colvilles first went in for melting special steels.

The pace, in fact was killing. David Colville suddenly passed away at 56 in October 1916, and the equally untimely death of his brother Archibald at 62 followed two months later.

With all the senior Colvilles gone, the guidance of the great expanding Colville concern passed to John Craig. He was only 42 when he first presided as chairman, close on forty years ago. Among his first tasks he had to safeguard the vital supplies of fuel in the changing conditions, so the purchase of the old established coal firm Archibald Russell Ltd. was completed by an exchange of shares.

As chairman he strove to carry on in the true spirit of those who founded the Company. The value of his work to the nation did not go unnoticed. Before the war ended he was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
With the end of the war new problems gathered. Before, the British iron and steel industry had been, for the most part, a collection of individual firms, each fending for itself. The team work engendered by the struggle led to an intensification of company grouping for the purpose of protecting raw materials, rounding out production and ensuring market outlets.
The period since then has seen the greatest growth of Colvilles. It has also been a witness of great things still to come, like the commissioning vast iron and steel scheme now being built on the green fields at Ravenscraig, where John Craig rambled as a boy.

Under his direction, Colvilles bought the Inshaw works at Craigneuk, Motherwell. These have since been developed by the associated Motherwell Machinery and Scrap Company Ltd., on the one side and the Clyde Alloy Steel Company Ltd., on the other. The latter is now a leader in the field of special and alloy steels. At much the same time, a controlling interest was acquired in Smith and McLean Ltd., a sheet and bar rolling firm, still one of largest galvanising concerns in the country which consumed, and still consumes a large tonnage of Colvilles steel. Perhaps the biggest of the time however, was the interchange of shares with Harland and Wolff, Ltd., the world famous ship builder of Belfast and Glasgow. A short time later this fruitful connection was even more closely cemented and John Craig joined the board of Harland and Wolff, which he has served for thirty years. Though the direct ties have been changed since then, Colvilles still provide all the steel for the ships built by Harland and Wolff.

In the six years since 1914, Colvilles had grown from a single firm turning out about 318,000 tons of steel ingots from one work in Motherwell to a well-knit group of allied concerns melting around 815,000 tons a year in three big plants. The number of workers had increased to 10,000 on iron and steel making with another 6,500 at the collieries, and still another 1,500 at the re-rolling mills. The company had branched into pig iron production and had won a name for melting, rolling and casting special steels. Practically all this harvest of activity had been seeded and brought to fruition by John Craig.

He was now a captain of industry whose presence on any board gave it substance and stature. As such there were great calls on his services so that the list of his offices both inside and outside the trade steadily grew. For example, he has long been on the board of the Bank of Scotland and is now Governor.
Great pressure was put on him to remove himself and his talents to the wider field of London. This was an attractive proposition in itself, but more so as the Scottish, iron and steel industry for reasons beyond its control and in spite of its strength, began to reel under heavy blows in the early twenties. Markets collapsed and there was no lack of prophets of doom who maintained that it would never properly recover.

But John Craig had faith, faith in Scotland, faith in himself, faith in the army of workers by hand and brain who had laboured him to build up Scottish steel.
'It may be', as he said at the time, 'that we have worked out reserves of once plentiful raw materials, but we have not worked out the reserves of human skill that abound in Scotland. So long as we have the men, we'll have a strong Scottish iron and steel industry'. That faith was given practical expression in the bold decision to spend a very large sum of money on completing the Clydebridge plate mill in the depths of the depression of the early twenties.
As it happened, he did go to London, and very often, but he went the business of Colvilles and of the Scottish trade at large. He played a major part in on founding and building the National Federation of Iron and Steel Manufacturers and became an early President.

This body was established to look after the health of the British steel Industry and very soon it was fully engaged diagnosing and seeking cures for the ailments that afflicted it.
'Colvilles cannot prosper within an ailing industry', he correctly affirmed. 'But decisions affecting the well-being and the future of the company are being taken in London. There I must go when occasion demands'.
Occasion demanded many many times, and he gladly put up with innumerable weary journeys to London and abroad. Nor did he neglect, on the one side the more technical, and on the other the more social affairs of the trade. He took an active part in the corporate business of the Iron and Steel Institute, and of the no less distinguished West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute, and served both as President. He also became President of the Iron, Steel and Ironmongery Benevolent Association of Scotland.

All this betokened at once the man of deep personal faith at peace with himself, the diligent man and the man of vision. From the inner peace came the strength to be diligent in the tasks that fell to the present. His busy life remained freshened and encouraged by his contacts with humanity; he never lost touch with the workers at the furnaces and mills, or in the offices. Like them he was, and still is, a Colvilles man, and one always happy to exchange a nod or a greeting with a fellow worker. Men, indeed, marvel how he remembers all the names and the Intimate family details. But that was never a burden to him. His uncommon common touch came naturally.

However, time marched on. The British iron and steel trade went through a painful period of reorganisation to shake itself clear of its difficulties. For its part, Colvilles set out on a new course to gather strength. In 1930, David Colville and Sons. Ltd merged with James Dunlop and Co. Ltd., to form the great combine of Colvilles Ltd.. From then on Colvilles, still animated by the old family feeling, began to take on its present shape and form. Loose threads in the Scottish economy were drawn together when the steel business of Stewarts and Lloyds Ltd. was taken over on the transfer of the main works of that great firm to Corby, and when the idle Mossend works of William Beardmore and Co. Ltd., were purchased.
At this time John Craig took a leading part in the development of the British Iron and Steel Federation which grew out of the National Federation of Iron and Steel Manufacturers.

In 1936 the ordinary shares of Colvilles Ltd. were sold to the public. For the first time, John Craig was responsible to thousands of shareholders not known to him personally, but that in no way affected his sense of personal responsibility for the conduct of the company which he regarded as a national asset. He quietly went ahead with others consolidating the steel industry of Scotland. In this year, The Steel Company of Scotland Ltd., the firm which taught young David Colville the art and science of open hearth melting sixty years before, passed into the control of Colvilles. The Lanarkshire Steel Co. Ltd. was also purchased and brought with it land which, added to farms bought in 1921, forms the site of the new works at Ravenscraig. Here is applied vision.

Colvilles did not stop at acquiring new properties. Big improvements and extensions were put in train at all of them. Perhaps the most significant change was the integration of Clyde Iron Works and Clydebridge Steel Works. This great scheme is an outstanding example of the work of the partnership in which John Craig's commercial skill has been combined with the technical experience of Sir Andrew McCance, his colleague for many years now his successor.

Just as Dalzell was ready to put extra effort into the First World War, Clyde Iron and Clydebridge were pulling very strongly in double harness just in time for the second world conflict. During that struggle, Colvilles, which had grown into a huge undertaking, dominating about 85 per cent. of the whole Scottish iron and steel trade in terms of tonnage, was, as the world knows a source of great national strength. That the firm was ready and in trim is due principally to the foresight of John Craig. This was recognised by the honour of knighthood conferred on him in 1943.

He did much more than link a number of firms together in ownership. He welded them into a unitary whole, with a common purpose and spirit. All this revealed great wisdom and courage - wisdom in knowing that a trade is no stronger than the people in it, courage in providing them with the tools even when it meant risking heavy expenditure at the depth of a depression. His uncommon singleness of purpose empowered him to cut right through to the heart of things. In this way he proved himself to be a great industrial architect and builder.
It was fitting that such skills, acquired in the hard school of experience, should be recognised by Glasgow University which awarded him an honorary Doctorate of Laws in 1951, its quincentenary year.

His powers, undiminished and still fully exercised by an industry which no sooner settles one problem than it is faced with another, sprung from deep-seated qualities. He is an authentic Scot, a forthright man without pretensions or ostentation, whose character has been enriched by a heritage of profound religious feelings passed on from his forbears and strengthened by his own convictions, feelings that bring with them quietness and peace and the power to lay aside at night-time the troubles of the day.
'I never carried the weight of the world on my shoulders as a boy, and I don't now. I have never carried any of my worries to bed'. That is the secret of the vision which he has worked out in practical terms. There is the germ of his power.
The passage of time has naturally brought changes but in the fundamentals of character and personality, Sir John Craig, C.B.E. D.L., L.L.D., is only a mature version of the lad who sat under school master Whamond.

Perhaps the dominie, whose name is still revered in Motherwell knew what he was about when he encouraged him to put in for an office boy's job in Colvilles; if he did, he chose well, for Colvilles could not have signed on a more diligent servant nor could John Craig have picked a better place to start. In any case, William Currie signed on, not just the office boy, but the future chairman, and the man who has moulded the Scottish iron and steel industry over a long life.
Boy and man, from office boy to chairman, one may say that John Craig has been in the selfsame job for sixty-seven years. All that time he has been a Colvilles' man. That is his pride, and that he remains.

Jubilee of David Colville & Sons Ltd 1871-1921

Early in 1872 the Dalzell Works were practically completed and ready to commence operations. It was a comparatively modest beginning comprising 20 Puddling Furnaces, 2 Ball Furnaces, an 18-inch Mill and a l2-inch Mill. The Puddling Furnaces actually started work on l8th March, 1872, and rolling began in the Mills on 4th April, 1872; the whole plant giving employment to two hundred men.

Early Struggles and Triumphs.

The young Firm had their period of difficulties and anxieties, of harassing doubts whether the new venture in which their all and more were sunk would surmount the inevitable early obstacles and failures and win through to established success. To achieve this, father and sons spared themselves nothing of possible effort and devotion to the interests of the Works-Mr. Colville, Senior, in energetic direction and closest supervision; the younger partners in determination to gain a thorough practical knowledge of every department and each process employed and in toil early and late. Initial difficulties and disappointments were soon compensated for by solid and increasing triumphs. The quality of the manufactures at Dalzell Works steadily gained a high and enduring reputation. When tragic disaster befell the Tay Bridge in the great storm of December,1879 and the important contract for the supply of Iron Bars for a new Bridge was secured by the young Motherwell Firm, the corner had been fairly turned. From that time forward Dalzell's record was one of steady expansion and increasing prosperity.

" Dalzell Steel." The next important step taken at Dalzell was to begin the manufacture of Steel; and intimately associated with this development was the entry into the business of a fresh and influential force, of one who was to make an outstanding mark on the history of the concern in the person of Mr. David Colville, Junior, third son of the Founder. Steelmaking was then in its infancy in Scotland. But at Newton, Siemens plant had been laid down by the Steel Company of Scotland, Ltd., and with keen foresight into the future possibilities of this branch of the trade, Mr. Colville, Senior, had sent his youngest son to Newton to undergo a lengthy training and obtain by first-hand practical experience a thorough understanding of the processes employed. In 1879, equipped with this knowledge, Mr. David Colville, joined his father and brothers at Dalzell. A further ten acres of ground alongside the existing Iron Works was acquired: and five Siemens Open Hearth Furnaces, each of ten tons capacity, were there erected. At the same time, a Steam Hammer, Plate Mill, and Shearing Plant were installed: so that the Works could undertake the manufacture of both Ship and Boiler Plates. The new Steel Works started in 1880, and, largely owing to the expert knowledge and efficient management of Mr. David Colville Jun., met with immediate and remarkable success. "Dalzell Steel" speedily achieved wide renown and its production became of first importance in the Firm's activities. A strong connection with America had been early established and it is notable that the first Steel Plates rolled in the United States were made from slabs supplied by Dalzell. The products of the Motherwell Works soon became known and valued in Germany also; and the first Atlantic liner constructed in that country was built entirely of Dalzell Steel.

Changes and Developments.

The rapid expansion of the business soon rendered it necessary to divide responsibility for the conduct of affairs-Mr. David Colville, Senior, retaining general supervision and guiding by his ripe wisdom and experience the energy and enterprise of his sons; while Mr. John and Mr. Archibald Colville applied themselves to the commercial development and financial interests of the concern. Mr. David Colville, Junior, devoted his attention almost wholly to the practical side of the management. Ever a keen student of steel manufacture open-minded and eager to absorb ideas of value from any source, Mr. David was prompt to adopt anything in the way of methods or machinery calculated to improve the processes employed at Dalzell. In July, 1895 the Firm was converted in to a Private Limited Liability Company, with Mr. David Colville, Senior as Chairman, in which capacity he acted until his death in 1897, full of years and honour - a Captain of Industry who had contributed largely to the commercial supremacy of his country. The Founder was succeeded in the Chairmanship of the Company by Mr. John Colville, who, in addition to his unsparing and highly valued labours in its behalf, had long played a prominent and distinguished part in public affairs and had been elected Member of Parliament for North East Lanark in 1895. His early and lamented death occurred in August, 1901
Mr. Archibald Colville was then appointed Chairman of the Company, and, together with Mr. David Colville, devoted untiring efforts to the advancement of its interests. This partnership of the two brothers was a wonderfully effective combination. To it the consistent and growing success which attended the Company must be largely attributed, and Dalzell Works were built up to be the largest individual Steel Works in the country. A large extension was begun in l9l2 and was ready for operation in the summer of 1914. About 2,800 men were then employed; the Steel Works consisting of 30 Open Hearth Melting Furnaces with three Plate Mills, two Bar Mills, one Cogging Mill, and a Test Mill, and the Iron Works Department of 11 Puddling and 3 Scrap Furnaces with a Forge Train, 1 Merchant Mill and 1 Guide Mill.

The Impulse of the Great War.

The outbreak of War in August, 1914, and the resulting urgent requirements of the Nation in Iron and Steel manufactures were the immediate causes leading to very extensive and important developments in the scope and activities of the Company. The whole output of the Works was immediately put at the disposal of the War Office and the Admiralty ; but it was not until October, 1914, that War work was begun in earnest when the French Commission approached the Company with regard to Shell Steel, and contracts were placed for 75mf m and 82m,/m Shell Bars. For the succeeding four years, practically the entire capacity and products at Dalzell Works were devoted to the supply of War material. A large new Cogging Mill, the erection of which was commenced in 1 912, was brought into operation at the end of l9l4, and began to roll 8 in. , 9.2 in. and 12 in. Shell Bars for the British Government and also large Shell Bars for the Italian Government. In addition to rolling 550 to 600 tons per week of these heavy H .E. Shell bars, it put through about 250 tons per week of Forging Blooms for Marine Engine Shafts, Gun Carriage Axles, etc.

Two additional 50-ton Open Hearth Melting Furnaces were completed in 1915. The three Plate Mills, rolling plates from 1/8 in. to 6 ins., have a capacity of about 4,000 tons per week, and early in the War were fully occupied with Admiralty programmes for High Tensile, High High Tensile, and other qualities of Steel Plates. In these Mills were rolled material for all classes of Warships, including the Tiger, Barham, Renown, etc., and for large numbers of Destroyers, Submarines, Minesweepers, Patrol Boats and other auxiliary vessels.

Later, when the effects of the enemy Submarines began felt on Merchant Ships, the Mills were largely occupied Plates for Standard Ships.

A large quantity of Nickel Chrome, Nickel, and other Special Qualities of Steel Plates and Sections were rolled for Tanks, Aircraft, Gun Carriages, and for all other Steel requirements for War Services.

In the manufacture of material for Tanks these Mills had a large share, and were able to produce over 500 tons per week of Bomb Proof Plates, all given heat treatment in two large Annealing Furnaces specially built for the purpose. In the Autumn of l9l8 the manufacture of Bullet-Proof Plates for Tanks was undertaken.

Arrangements were then made for the production on a large scale of finished Bullet-Proof Plates for Tanks in complete sets. Buildings were erected, furnaces installed, machines purchased, and three Shooting Ranges built for testing the Plates. A new electrically-driven Guide Mill was installed in 1916, and owing to the urgent need for light Rails at the Front, it was soon fully occupied with this class of work. A special department was fitted out for straightening, punching and cutting the Rails to dead lengths; and an output of 500 tons of Rails per week was attained. An extensive plant was installed for cutting Bars into required lengths, including breakers and batteries of Hack Saws. Special Bar Turning Machines were designed and installed ; 42 of these being made in our own Engineering Shops,3l being for our own Works and the remainder f o r Steel Works in England and Wales. These Machines were also used for rough turning Nickel Chrome Bars for Aeroplanes. During the War women were extensively employed turning the Shell Bars, finishing the Trench Rails, and on general labour. By the end of the War the Plant at Dalzell had increased to 32 Acid and Basic Open Hearth Furnaces, and l1 Rolling Mills; and owing to the many additional branches of industry undertaken, the employees at Dalzell Works had increased in number to 5,000. The remarkable growth in annual output at Dalzell Works is strikingly illustrated in the following figures: -

Steel Ingots. Tons per annum.

1881 12,524
1914 318,000
1917 467,768

Expansion of the Company's interests.

The Company's first connection with outside concerns was formed in January,1915, when they took a controlling interest in the Fullwood Foundry Co., Ltd., which was then about to be started for the manufacture of Ingot Moulds and similar castings. The Fullwood Foundry Company have well-equipped Works for this purpose at Mossend and have recently acquired additional Works at Hamilton. Early in 1915, Messrs Archibald and David Colville were consulted by the Ministry of Munitions as to the possibility of an immediately increased output of Steel from Scotland. This resulted in October, 1915, in the Company, at the request of the Covernment, agreeing to purchase and utilise for the production of urgent War material the Works of the Clydebridge Steel Company, Ltd., at Cambuslang near Glasgow. About the same time, the Company took lease of the Steel Works of the Glengarnock Iron and Steel Company, Ltd., at Glengarnock. These plants were at once brought fully into operation and enabled the Company to increase the output of Steel to the extent of 5,000-6,000 tons per week, the bulk of which was utilised for Shells. Later, again, at the request of the Government, the whole of the Glengarnock Works was purchased, including the Steel Works, Blast Furnaces, Chemical Works, etc. The country was still critically short of Steel; and the Government approached the Company with a further request to undertake large extensionss, so as to prepare for an increased demand for shipbuilding materials. Extensions were therefore decided upon both at Clydebridge and Glengarnock and these were commenced in October, 1916.

Extensions at Clydebridge.

At Clydebridge Works, when taken over in October,1 915, the Melting Shop contained six 40-ton and two 60-tonO pen Hearth Acid Furnaces, and a foundation for another large Furnace. A Slabbing Mill supplied the Plate Mills, of which there were three, so arranged that only two could be worked at one time. The Slabbing Mill was altered to roll 6 in. and 8 in. Shell Bars, and a Shell Shop erected with six batteries of Hack Saws to cut the Billets to Shell lengths. A new 60-ton Furnace was built in the old Melting Shop; making the total output of Ingots available about 2,500 tons weekly. Extensive alterations were also carried out in various directions with a view to speeding up the output.

The extensions begun in October, 1916, comprised five 60-ton Open Hearth Basic Furnaces, with Stockyard and Producer Bench, and a Cogging Mill with Soaking Pits, etc. The new Works began producing Steel at the end of 1917, and in May, 1918, the Cogging Mill was put into operation.

Adjacent to these, the construction of a large electrically-driven Three-High Plate Mill was begun during last year. This Mill embodies all the latest improvements in methods of rolling and handling of Plates. It is controlled and manipulated entirely by electricity. Embodied in the construction and lay-out are all the latest labour saving appliances. It is hoped that this Mill will be completed and come into operation during the present year, and, with the new Melting Shop and Cogging Mill erected in 1917, will mark a great advance in the present methods of production and complete what should be one of the finest Plate producing plants in the Country. Over 2,000 men are now employed at Clydebridge Works.

Extensions at Glengarnock.

The portion of the Works leased by the Company in l9l5 at Glengarnock comprised the Melting Shop, containing one 200-ton Mixer and three 50-ton Open Hearth Furnaces a, Cogging Mill, a large Bar Mill, and a l2-inch Guide Mill. On the purchase of the entire Works in July, 1916, the Blast Furnaces and Bessemer Plant were out into operation. These consisted of seven Blast Furnaces and four Bessemer Converters. A new Cogging Mill was put down and the 200-ton Mixer was converted into a 100-ton Open Hearth Furnace. To meet the ever-increasing demand for Steel, it became necessary to erect a complete unit consisting of a Melting Shop containing four Open Hearth Furnaces of 60 tons capacity and two 250-ton Mixers, and a combined 30 -inch Cogging and Bar Finishing Mill, with Producer Benches Re-heating Furnaces, Dad Soakers, Boiler House and Power Station. In January, 1918, melting was begun in this new Shop, and later the whole plant was brought into operation.

The By-Products Department, consisting of Ammonia Plant, Chemical Plant and Phosphoric Slag Mill, provided Sulphate of Ammonia and Ground Basic Slag for agricultural purposes and oil Fuel for warships. The total output of these items for 1916 -1918 was:
Sulphate of Ammonia, 2,213 tons, Basic Slag, 68,265 tons. Oil, 1,619,050 gallons.

The extensions carried out created a Plant producing 2,200 tons Pig iron, 1,400 tons Bessemer and 5,000tons Open Hearth Ingots per week, and employing about 3,000 men. Further improvements and extensions have been carried out at the Blast Furnaces. Turbo-blowing Plant for all the Furnaces is being installed. The seven Furnaces have been repaired or rebuilt, and, in addition, a new Blast Furnace is under construction. When completed, these modifications and alterations will permit of an output of at least 3,000 tons of Pig Iron per week, with a corresponding increase in the production of By-products. A large proportion of the Iron is taken while hot to the new Melting Plant, and the waste gases are utilised for power purposes in the Works. The Company also produce a high class Foundry Iron -Dalzell Brand- which is being increasingly used for the production of high class Castings for Engineering and Commercial purposes. One feature in the extensions at the three Works is worthy of note in view of the increasing cost of Fuel and the need for conserving the supply.

A Waste Heat Boiler and Economiser was erected at each new Melting Furnace; and the saving of Fuel thereby obtained has been sufficient to justify the installation of these Boilers in some of the older Melting Shops.

Capacity and Output.

The Company's Steel and Iron Works have capacity for producing annually over one million tons of Steel Ingots, which are manufactured into Plates for Boilers, Ships, Bridges and general Engineering work, also Sections and Bars for all purposes and special billets for Tube making.

The rate of development and the expansion of the Company's output of Ingots is clearly shown in the comparison afforded by the following figures:-

Basic Tons Acid Tons Bessemer Tons Total per annum Tons
1914 55,811 262,189 318,000
1916 61,357 616,643 678,000
1918 217,395 505,633 69,316 792,344
1919 204,311 416,640 35,818 656,769
1920 330,505 484,876 815,381

The Bessemer Plant is at present out of operation.

The Toll of War.

The vast amount of extra work and responsibility involved in the taking over and extension of Clydebridge and Glengarnock Works, in addition to the numerous and important duties they undertook in assistance of the Government during the War, had naturally imposed severe physical and mental strain upon Mr. Archibald and Mr. David Colville. Both had been working at very high pressure throughout the War period, not sparing themselves in their anxiety to help the Country in every possible way: and the tragic results were perhaps inevitable. Mr. David Colville was suddenly struck down and died on l6th October, l9l6; and only two months later, after a strenuous effort to carry on, Mr. Archibald Colville succumbed to a brief illness on 11th December 1916.

Mr. Archibald Colville was succeeded in the Chairmanship of the Company by Mr. John Craig, the present holder of the office. Mr. Craig, who entered the employment of the Company in 1888 and has been intimately associated with the progress and development of the concern, was made a Director in February, 1910. Mr. Craig has also taken an active and prominent interest in the affairs of the Steel Trade; and, as representing the industry, his services were in constant requisition by the Government throughout the War in regard to matters of vital interest to the Nation. In recognition of this, His Majesty created M r. Craig a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in June 1918.

In December, 1916, following upon the decease of Mr. David Colville , Mr. David M. Maclay was appointed General Works Manager with supervision and control of the Company's Dalzell, Glengarnock and Clydebridge Works.

The Company's Allied Concerns.

Harland & Wolff, Limited.

An important development of the Company was an arrangement for the exchange of Shares, as from January, 1919, with their largest customers, Messrs Harland & Wolff, Limited, Belfast and Glasgow etc., thus sealing a long friendship and close working connection of many years. Early in 1920, the Rt. Hon. Lord Pirrie, K.P., joined the Board of Directors of David Colville & Sons, Limited ; and subsequently the Company became more closely amalgamated with the combine of which Messrs Harland & Wolff. Ltd. are the centre.

Archibald Russell, Limited.

In order that the Company might be assured of adequate and regular Coal supplies, they entered into an arrangement as from lst January, 1917, whereby they purchased the old-established business of Messrs. Archibald Russell, Limited, who owned extensive Collieries in Lanarkshire and Stirlingshire. The Firm of Archibald Russell, Limited, owes its foundation to the late Mr. Archibald Russell, Senior, who in 1843 began business as a coalmaster in Cambuslang. The business gradually extended until he was owner of half-a-dozen Collieries and was very largely developed by his son, also named Archibald Russell. In l904 the business was converted in to a Private Limited Liability Company its leading members then being four grandsons of the Founder. Since the Company's amalgamation with David Colville & Sons, Ltd., Mr. T. G. Hardie has acted as Managing Director. In August, 1917, Archibald Russell, Ltd., acquired control of the Murdostoun Colliery Co., Ltd., Cleland; and in July, 1918 they bought the Ross Colliery, Hamilton. At the present time the Company own twenty-four Pits - nineteen in Lanarkshire and five in Stirlingshire - situated as follows :

Lanarkshire - Greenfield, Whistleberry, Ferniegare, Ross (Hamilton), Tannochside (Uddingston), Dechmont, Loanend (Newton), Murdostoun (Cleland).

Stirlingshire - Polmaise, Nos 1, 2, 3 and 4.

These Pits employ a total of 6,500 men, produce approximately one million and a quarter tons per annum, and have large reserves of coal. A large variety of qualities of Coal is produced. Splint Coal for Blast Furnace use, Ell Coal for household purposes and Cannel Coal for gas production, come from the Lanarkshire Pits. From Polmaise Collieries, in Stirlingshire, what is considered to be one of the finest Navigation Coals in Scotland is produced. A very fine Anthracite is also obtained from these Pits, which are, indeed, the largest producers of this valuable class of Coal in Scotland. In addition, Archibald Russell, Ltd., are the largest producers of Patent Fuel (Briquettes) in Scotland, the output at Polmaise Collieries being 300 tons per day. In Lanarkshire also they have a Briquette Plant manufacturing largely for domestic use.

The Company also own nearly four thousand railway wagons, for the repair and upkeep of which a Wagon Shop, equipped with the most modern machinery, has been established at Whitehill, Hamilton.

Polmaise Patent Fuel Company, Limited.

This Company was formed in 1920 to take over the Patent Fuel and Briquetting Plants of Messrs. Archibald Russell, Limited, and is now operating the plants in Stirlingshire and Lanarkshire.

Smith & McLean, Limited.

During the latter part of l9l9 the Company decided that it was in their interests to secure control of Messrs. Smith & M'Lean, Limited, with Sheet and Galvanising Works at Gartcosh, Milnwood, Mavisbank (Glasgow), and Port-Glasgow, and who for many years had been large customers of the Company.

The Firm of Smith & M'Lean, Ltd., was founded in 1852 as a Galvanising concern at Mavisbank, Glasgow. No descendants of the original founders (Mr. Smith of Glasgow and Mr. Charles M'Lean of Plantation) are now connected with the business. About 1870 Mr. George Jardine and Mr. C. C. Mowbray joined the Firm, and four years later Mr. Manfred L. P. Jardine succeeded Mr. George Jardine. These three principals are all deceased; but Mr. Archibald J. H. Mowbray, a son of Mr. C. C. Mowbray, is now Managing Director of the Company.
The Works at Gartcosh were acquired in 1872, their capacity at that date being the output of two Sheet Mills, with six Puddling and one Ball Furnaces. In 1904 the manufacture of Iron Sheets was discontinued and the Puddling Furnaces were demolished. The Plant at Gartcosh now includes five electrically-driven Sheet Mills, one Steam-driven Sheet Mill, and a Finishing shop.

The Milnwood Works, at Mossend, were acquired in 1894; they then consisted of two Sheet Mills, etc. To-day the Plant includes four steam-driven Sheet Mills, one electrically-driven Forge train, one steam driven Bar Mill, and fourteen Puddling Furnaces.

Mavisbank Works are equipped for Galvanising work of all descriptions, and the plant is one of the most up-to-date in Britain .

The Clyde Alloy Steel Company, Limited.

The Company purchased, shortly after the Armistice, small Ironworks situated between Motherwell and Wishaw, with the intention of utilising them for the rolling down of material during the great pressure for supplies. However, it was ultimately found that the Works could, with alterations, be made suitable for a Steel Foundry; and a proposal was made to Messrs. David Colville & Sons, Limited, to utilise them for this purpose. It was afterwards arranged that the Works should be put under the control of a new Company, to be called The Clyde Alloy Steel Company, Limited, the bulk of whose shares are held by Messrs. David Colville & Sons, Limited. The Works have been equipped with an Electric Furnace and two Rolling Mills, as well as a complete installation of Heat Treatment Plant for the manufacture of high class Steel Castings and other special steels.
The Carnlough Lime Company, Limited.
The Company purchased in 1920 the Works and Plant of The Carnlough Lime Company, Limited, and took over the lease of quarries at Carnlough, County Antrim, Ireland. These quarries produce an excellent quality of Limestone, which the Company require in large quantities for use in their Blast Furnaces and Steel Works. These Works also produce in considerable quantities Whiting and other By-products of Limestone manufacture, which are used in the chemical, linoleum and other trades. The Company own a Steamer called the Olderfleet, which is used in conjunction with the quarries.

The Company and their Employees.

Altogether, the Company and their allied concerns now employ about 18,000 workers, including approximately 5,000 at Dalzell, 3,000 at Glengarnock, 2,000 at Clydebridge, 6,500 at the Collieries, and 1,500 at the Works of Messrs Smith & M'Lean, Ltd.
In the history of the Company, relationships of a happy and pleasant nature with their employees have been long and consistently maintained
In the early days at Dalzell, the principals of the Company prided themselves upon their personal acquaintance with and interest in each man at the Works. With the rapid growth of the concern and its activities, and of the numbers employed, this in time became no longer possible; but the Company look with pleasure and gratitude upon a record perhaps unique in its absence of serious friction with their workers. On the part of the employees striking testimony to their loyalty to the Company is to be found in the fact that when King George visited Dalzell in September 1,917, and a large number of old employees had the honour of being presented to His Majesty, there were then on the pay-roll 464 with records of from 20 to over 46 years' continuous service. At the present celebration of the Jubilee, there are in the Company's active service 224 employees with over 20 years' service; 109 with over 25 years' service; 141 with over 30 years' service; 103 with over 35 years' service, and 39 with over 40 years' service; 16 with over 45 years' service, and one with the full 50 years' service. A Medal has been struck as a memento of the occasion and presented to all those employees who have over 20 years' service. The Company have three Welfare Supervisors at their Dalzell, Glengarnock and Clydebridge Works respectively, fully occupied in the organising and supervision of the social and recreational activities of the employees and the welfare of the younger workers. Sports Grounds and Pavilions have been provided, also, at each of these Works. The Company purchased a large building, which had been used as an Institute by the Church of Scotland for work among soldiers, at Gailes, on the Ayrshire Coast. The Institute is now being used for Summer Camps for Boys. At the beginning of this year, Captain David Colville, Captain Norman R. Colville, M.C., and Captain John Colville, in memory of their late fathers, purchased the Jerviston Estate of 75 acres and Mansion house, near Motherwell, for presentation to the workers at Dalzell for Welfare purposes. On his retrial from the General Works Managership at the end of 1920, Mr. David M. Maclay gifted £500 to found a Technical Library, so that the employees may have free access to the best works dealing with the Iron and Steel Industry. At the Greenfield and Tannochside Collieries of Messrs Archd. Russell, Ltd., Football and Recreation Grounds are provided for the employees. Messrs Smith & M'Lean, Ltd., have provided a Cricket and Football Ground for the employees at their Gartcosh Works, and have also recently acquired the Rawyards Farm Estate, including the Golf Course, with the idea of preserving the continuity of the local Golf Club, which is largely composed of employees.

A recent and interesting development on the social side, holding promise not only of an enjoyable annual function, but also of promoting a closer union and mutual interest amongst the employees of the Company and their allied concerns, is the organisation and establishment of a " Colville's Musical (Competition) Festival, "open to all employees. The first Festival was held in Motherwell on lst and 2nd April, 1921 ; and the various contests attracted a large number of entrants from the numerous Male and Mixed Voice Choirs, Brass and Pipe Bands, etc, which have been formed at the Works and Collieries.

For the purpose of providing a valuable means of mutual communication between the Company and their employees, and of linking up the various scattered bodies of workers by increasing their knowledge of and interest in each other's doings, Colville's |Magazine, a monthly Journal issued to employees at 2d., was established in January, 1920, and has proved very popular and successful. Colville's Magazine enjoys a large circulation, and its contents are very largely contributed by the employees themselves.

The Board of Directors of the Company.

The names of the members of the present Board of Directors of Messrs. David Colville & Sons. Limited, are given below, with the date of year of their appointment to the Board.

Mr. John Craig, C .B.E., Chairman and Managing Director, 1910.
Mr. Jas. B. Allan, Vice-Chairman and Managing Director, 1910
Mr. David M . Maclay, 1913.
Mr John Lennox, 1913.
Captain David Colville, 1916.
Mr. T. G. Hardie, 1917.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Pirrie, K.P., 1920.
Captain Norman R. Colville, M .C., 1920.
Captain John Colville, 1920.
Mr. Robert Chrichton, 1920.
Mr. George P. West, formerly Manager at Glengarnock Works, was appointed General Works Manager for the Company, in succession to Mr. David M. Maclay, as from lst January,1921.





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