# Beginners Series Part 9

Learn to space out your programs in the latest instalment of our series for beginners.

Volume 1

Number 11

January 1984

# Get really spaced out with a touch of TAB

THIS month we're going to learn how to space characters out on the screen with the use of the Basic statement TAB( ).

You can think of TAB as standing for tabulation which, if you know anything about typewriters, should give you a good idea of what it does -TAB allows you to pick the column your PRINT statement works in.

For example, with your computer in Mode 6, try:

PRINT TAB(10) "HELLO"

You'll notice that HELLO gets printed several columns from the side.

The number in brackets tells you the number of the column that printing will begin in. Beware though, for — as in so many other things in computing — you begin counting with the number 0.

This means that the first column is column 0, the second column 1 and so on.

In the example above, HELLO would have started in the eleventh column.

The exact number of columns per line varies from mode to mode — we'll cover the exact differences shortly. In Mode 6, there are 25 lines of 40 columns each, so the rightmost column on any line would be given by TAB(39).

TAB(40) would "wrap the printing round" to the next line. Program I illustrates the ideas - have a good look at it.

10 REM *** PROGRAM I ***
20 MODE 6
30 PRINT TAB(0)"*"
40 PRINT TAB(10)"*"
50 PRINT TAB(20)"*"
40 PRINT TAB(30)"*"
70 PRINT TAB(39)"*"
80 PRINT TAB(40)"*"

One point you have to watch is that the bracket must directly follow TAB. Using TAB ( ) instead of TAB( ) will cause all sorts of problems.

Also, try experimenting with TAB numbers bigger than the line length. Then try 256 - you might be surprised at the results as 256 is a special number in computing. When we reach it, we often go back to 0 again.

We can achieve really powerful results by putting a loop variable between the brackets of a TAB statement. Program II uses this idea to obtain a diagonal line of asterisks down the screen.

10 REM *** PROGRAM II ***
20 MODE 6
30 FOR loop%=0 TO 23
40 PRINT TAB(loop%)"*"
50 NEXT loop%

Can you see a way of reversing the direction of the diagonal line? Think for a moment before reading on.

What you have to do is start with the asterisks across to the right of the screen, then gradually move them left.

This will entail starting with a high column number in the TAB statement and working down to a low one.

We can do this by altering the loop variable so that it decreases by one each time, starting with the high number. So, we change line 30 to:

30 FOR loop%=23 TO 0 STEP -1

Nice as it is to be able to specify where on a line the asterisk should appear, it would be better still if we could pick the line it appears on as well.

We can do this with the TAB statement, by giving it two numbers inside the brackets, separated by a comma.

As before, the first number denotes the column. The second number tells us which line or row of the screen it will appear on. Try:

PRINT TAB(5,10) "HELLO"

and all will be revealed.

If you're into mathematics, you can think of the Mode 6 screen as divided into a 40 by 25 grid, the first number inside the brackets being an X co-ordinate and the second the Y co-ordinate. Even if you're not mathematical, Figure I should still make sense.

Remember that in computing we start counting at zero, so, just as the first column is specified by zero, so the first line is given by zero.

This means that TAB(0,0) refers to the top left-hand corner of the screen. Program III should make things clearer.

10 REM *** PROGRAM III ***
20 MODE 6
30 PRINT TAB(0,0)"*"
40 PRINT TAB(5,5)"*"
50 PRINT TAB(10,10)"*"
60 PRINT TAB(5,15)"*"
70 PRINT TAB(0,20)"*"

A point to watch is that, unlike TAB with just one number, TAB used in this way does not "wrap around" if your numbers are too large. Try:

PRINT TAB(45,45) "TEST"

to see what happens.

We can use this form of TAB to print out our diagonal of asterisks, as in Program IV.

10 REM *** PROGRAM IV ***
20 MODE 6
30 FOR loop%"0 TO 20
40 PRINT TAB(loop%,loop%)"*"
50 NEXT loop%

What do you think will happen if we change line 30 to:

FOR loop%=20 TO 0 STEP -1

Have a good think about it before you run it, remembering that we made a similar alteration to Program II.

Did you predict the outcome? Can you see what's going on? It's well worth thinking about.

If we really want to draw the other diagonal we should ensure that the column number starts at the high number, then "moves in" as the row number increases by one each time.

10 REM *** PROGRAM V ***
20 MODE 6
30 FOR loop%=0 TO 20
40 PRINT TAB(20-loop%,loop%)"*"
50 NEXT loop%

Line 40 in Program V achieves this by subtracting the loop variable loop% from 20 and using it to "index" the column number. The first time through the loop, the column number is 20, the row number 0. The next time the column number is 19, the row number 1 and so on.

You can stack TAB statements one after another following a print statement. Line 40 of Program VI uses this idea to use one loop to draw two parallel lines of asterisks.

10 REM *** PROGRAM VI ***
20 MODE 6
30 FOR loop%=0 TO 20
40 PRINT TAB(5,loop%)"*" TAB(35,loop%)"*"
50 NEXT loop%

You might like to use the techniques we've covered this month to produce the shape shown in Figure II with asterisks. You'll certainly master the ideas if you do!

Last month we made some triangles of asterisks. This month we're going to be producing some more. Only this time we're going to use the TAB statement to indent the rows of asterisks from the side of the screen.

We want the triangles to appear more like Figure IIIb rather than Figure IIIa, which we did last month.

Program VII does the trick.

10 REM *** PROGRAM VII ***
20 MODE 6
30 FOR loop%=0 TO 10
40 asterisk\$=asterisk\$+"*"
50 PRINT TAB(10-loop%,loop%) asterisk\$
60 NEXT loop%

in line 50 we use the same trick as in Program V, subtracting the loop variable from an "offset" - this time 10 - to provide the indent.

Each time through the loop we add one asterisk to the string, asterisk\$ that we are printing.

You might try to alter the program so that the triangle is printed upside-down.

Finally, try Program VIII. This, too, prints out another triangle of asterisks.

10 REM *** PROGRAM VIII ***
20 MODE 6
30 asterisk\$="*"
40 FOR loop%=0 TO 10
50 PRINT TAB(10-loop%,loop%) asterisk\$
60 asterisk\$=asterisk\$+"**"
70 NEXT loop%

Can you work out what's happening? Why add two asterisks in line 60?

Once you've "cracked" it you can try to turn this triangle upside down, as well.

Figure I: Column and Row values in Mode 6

MIKE BIBBY